Saturday, January 01, 2000

Print Work








Feature Films

Watch all of Tao's features at www.mangu.tv
FIX


Visit the Fix film site here: www.fixthemovie.com
BEING IN THE WORLD


Visit the Being in the World film site here: www.beingintheworlmovie.com
BEHIND THE WHEEL


See the entire film here

Guitar

Commercials

.




Directed by yours truly in collaboration with the brilliant art director Marie Noorbergen.



Print Work


JOE"S JEANS VINTAGE RESERVE BILLBOARD

JOE'S JEANS 55 COLORS BILLBOARD
JOE'S JEANS 10TH ANNIVERSARY -- PAZ DE LA HUERTA

JOE'S JEANS 55 COLORS
BULLETT MAGAZINE -- PATRICK FUGIT

 ALEXANDER EBERT
ELSE
MALIBU MAGAZINE - OLIVIA WILDE

Being in the World film transcription in English and Spanish

Being in the World film transcription in English and Spanish

  

BEING IN THE WORLD

Text on screen: 

01:00:08:10
I have found what I wanted; to put it all in a phrase: 
“Man can embody the truth but he cannot know it.”
Encontré lo que buscaba; englobar todo en una frase:
"El Hombre puede encarnar la verdad, pero no puede conocerla"

-William Butler Yeats

01:00:34:18-01:00:43:09

MARK WRATHALL VO
It doesn’t occur to most people to worry about this, but philosophers are very concerned to understand how it is that we engage with objects in the world.
La mayoría de las personas no nos preocupamos por esto, pero los filósofos están muy interesados en entender cómo es que nos relacionamos con las cosas en este mundo.

01:00:47:00-01:01:01:01
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
We philosophers have always been interested in what is unique about human beings – how it is that humans engage with and make sense of the world around us. What, if anything, gives meaning to our lives?
Nosotros los filósofos siempre nos hemos interesado en lo que hace únicos a los seres humanos - cómo es que los seres humanos nos relacionamos y le damos sentido a este mundo a nuestro alrededor. ¿Qué es lo que da significado a nuestras vidas? Si es que lo hay.

01:01:04:13-01:01:11:02
MARK WRATHALL VO
Most of us don’t think about it. We just sit down in a chair… at the table and pick up the fork and spoon and work with them.
La mayoría de nosotros no lo pensamos. Simplemente nos sentamos en una silla... en la mesa, tomamos el tenedor y la cuchara y los usamos.

01:01:18:14- 01:01:30:16
Philosophers are very interested in thinking, well, how can that happen? How is it that these minds up here, somewhere in us, manage to get out there into the world and grab a hold of these physical objects.
Los Filósofos están muy interesados en ¿Cómo es que eso sucede? ¿Cómo es que nuestras mentes, en algún lugar de ellas, logran salir al mundo y tomar estos objetos?

01:02:07:09-01:02:37:11
RYAN CROSS:
I’m Ryan Cross and I’m a bass player, cellist, composer… I started playing when I was 9 years old. I started playing cello and started playing after my brothers. They all played classical instruments and so I decided to go on and follow in their footsteps. But then I took it a step farther after high school and was picking up the bass; and started to figure out that the bass was a lot cooler than the cello.
Soy Ryan Cross, soy bajista, chelista, compositor... Comencé a tocar cuando tenía 9 años. Comencé tocando el chelo, como lo hacían mis hermanos. Todos ellos tocaban instrumentos clásicos, por lo que decidí seguir sus pasos. Pero después fui un paso más allá cuando terminé la escuela preparatoria, tomé el bajo; y comencé a darme cuenta de que el bajo era mucho más atractivo que el chelo.

01:02:43:12-01:02:56:04 
For me, connecting to my instrument, being connected to myself. I have to be connected HERE. So I have to be in touch with myself. Myself, meaning the instrument becomes you, you know, so you’re in touch with THIS.
Para mí, conectarme a mi instrumento es estar conectado a mí mismo. Tengo que estar conectado aquí. Entonces, tengo que estar en contacto conmigo mismo. Conmigo mismo, quiero decir que el instrumento se convierte en ti, tú sabes, te conectas con esto.

01:03:02:19-01:03:16:08
I started playing the instrument and it felt like it had a character of its own. The sound directed me where to go. And it felt like I was better when I was playing the instrument.
Comencé a tocar el instrumento y se sentía como si tuviera un carácter por sí mismo. El sonido me decía hacia dónde ir. Y me sentía mejor cuando tocaba.

I. A BRIEF HISTORY OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY
I. UNA BREVE HISTORIA SOBRE FILOSOFÍA OCCIDENTAL

SEAN KELLY Chairman of the Philosophy Department Harvard University
SEAN KELLY Director del Departamento de Filosofía de la Universidad de Harvard

01:03:30:16-01:03:56:07 
So, if you go all the way back to Ancient Greece to the 5th Century BC in Athens, you find one of the most important philosophers in the history of the West, namely Plato. And Plato was famous for articulating a story about what it is for anything to be anything at all, and, in particular, what it is for us to be the kinds of beings that we are.
Entonces, si se remontan a la antigua Grecia al Siglo V a.c. en Atenas,
encontrarán uno de los filósofos más importantes en la historia occidental, Platón. Platón fue famoso por articular una historia acerca de ¿qué es para cualquier cosa, ser lo que es?, y, en particular, ¿qué es para nosotros ser el tipo de seres que somos?

TAYLOR CARMAN VO: Professor of Philosophy, Barnard College, Columbia
Profesor de Filosofía, Colegio Barnard, Columbia

01:03:59:18-01:04:04:23
What’s important for Plato is truth, correctness, theoretical understanding.
Lo que es importante para Platón es la verdad, lo correcto, el entendimiento teórico.

HUBERT DREYFUS VO: Professor of Philosophy, UC Berkeley
Profesor de Filosofía, Universidad de Berkeley

01:04:05:20-01:04:08:23
 He was dunk on theory it was so amazing to him.
Estaba borracho de teoría, era algo grandioso para él.

01:04:09:13-01:04:20:22
MARK WRATHALL VO
One of his big contributions to philosophy was the theory of forms, and that was the idea that we understand things and recognize things and can use things only to the extent that we have an idea of what they are.
Una de sus más grandes contribuciones a la filosofía fue la Teoría de Formas, que afirma que entendemos las cosas, las reconocemos y podemos usarlas solo hasta el grado en el que sabemos lo que son. 

01:04:21:18-01:04:29:13
SEAN KELLY VO:
Plato thought things are as they really are when they are abstracted away from all of their particular details..
Platón pensaba que las cosas son lo que realmente son cuando se les quita todos sus detalles particulares.

01:04:29:13-01:04:37:15
MARK WRATHALL VO:
And that’s really been a dominant influence in philosophy. So philosophers have thought that we understand the world by getting clear about the way we think about the world.
Y esa ha sido una influencia dominante en la filosofía. Entonces, los filósofos han deducido que las personas entendemos lo que hay a nuestro alrededor, entendiendo primero la manera en que razonamos acerca del mundo.

01:04:41:16-01:05:04:05
SEAN KELLY VO: 
On the Platonic model, the most important and most interesting thing that we can do as human beings is to sit back and think rationally about the nature of the universe. That’s a classical philosophers account of what’s special about us as human beings. We’re rational beings. We are intellectual beings. We are thinking beings.
En el modelo Platónico, lo más importante e interesante que podemos hacer como seres humanos, es sentarnos y pensar racionalmente acerca de la naturaleza del universo. Eso es una explicación clásica de los filósofos de lo que nos hace especiales a los seres humanos. Somos seres racionales. Somos seres intelectuales. Somos seres pensantes.

01:05:06:09-01:05:16:22
HUBERT DREYFUS VO:

 Then comes another move... a long time later, around 1650. René Descartes who was a mathematician and also very interested in science.

 Entonces viene otro movimiento... Mucho tiempo después, alrededor de 1650. René Descartes quien fue un matemático y también muy interesado en la ciencia.

01:05:17:22-01:05:24:17
JOHN HAUGELAND VO: Professor of Philosophy, University of Chicago
Descartes said, and he meant this as sort of a definitive description of himself and other entities like him….I am a thinking thing….
Descartes decía, y esto lo decía como un tipo de descripción definitiva de sí mismo y de otras entidades como él.... Soy una cosa pensante.

01:05:25:05-01:05:35:17 
HUBERT DREYFUS VO:
And a thinking thing is a mind….which has IN it ideas, and IN it experience, and IN it a representation, a kind of picture of the world.
Y una cosa pensante es una mente....que tiene ideas, experiencia, y representación DENTRO de ella, como si fuera una fotografía del mundo.

01:05:36:20-01:05:44:07
TAYLOR CARMAN VO:
Especially since Descartes, philosophers have thought about us as subjects standing over against objects...
Especialmente desde Descartes, los filósofos nos han visto como sujetos situados por encima de objetos; como si el mundo fuese un objeto, separado de nosotros parado ahí para nuestra contemplación, observación o para nuestro punto de vista de espectador. Entonces, estamos separados, apartados del mundo, y nuestras actitudes que nos conectan con el mundo son actitudes teóricas.

01:05:44:18-01:06:31:18
CHARLES TAYLOR VO: 
PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY, MCGILL UNIVERSITY
And what you get is this incredible idea, of what I call disengaged subjects, but the subject of knowledge is not engaged in a society, on the contrary. Descartes is asking people, each one to go back into their own mind and see how they can be certain of anything in the world right? So disengaged from the society, as it were from fellow speakers, disengaged from the body, disengaged from tradition and history, don't simply take anything on the fact that you got it from your preceptors or...work it out for yourself. It is an incredible act of total disengagement the really proper human mind, knowing  things is utterly outside of the society, the body and any kind of tradition right?  

 01:06:35:06-01:06:49:17
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
Descartes was obsessed with the idea that we couldn’t get off the ground if we couldn’t find something certain to reason from. And naturally the only thing he could be certain of, is that he was a thinking thing. Because he said that even if he doubted it – that he was a thinking thing – he was thinking.
Descartes estaba obsesionado con la idea de que no podíamos separarnos del suelo si no encontrábamos alguna razón para hacerlo. Y naturalmente la única cosa de la que él podía estar seguro, era que él era una cosa pensante. Porque él decía que aunque lo dudara - que él era una cosa pensante - él estaba pensando.

01:06:49:17-01:07:14:22
So there you can get started. And from there you can deduce everything. And every philospher afterwards – big deal philosophers like
Kant, was working within that framework and Spinoza, Leibnitz and so forth. They all just took that for granted, and then a philospher came along--high powered enough to resist and overthrow the whole Plato-Descartes tradition.
Entonces, ahí puedes comenzar. Y desde ahí puedes deducir cualquier cosa. Y cada filósofo después de eso - filósofos de alto nivel como Kant, estuvieron trabajando dentro de ese contexto y Spinoza, Leibnitz, etc. todos ellos lo daban por supuesto, y entonces llegó un filósofo--suficientemente fuerte como para resistir las tradiciones de Platón y Descartes.

01:07:14:22-01:07:15:20
And that was Heidegger.
Y ese era Heidegger.

II. BEING AND TIME
II. LOS SERES Y EL TIEMPO

01:07:21:23-01:07:35:20
MARK WRATHALL VO
Martin Heidegger was a German philosopher. In 1927 he published a book called Being in Time which was a landmark in 20th century philosophy– one the most influencial works in philosophy in the last hundred years and maybe ever.
Martin Heidegger era un filósofo alemán. En 1927 publicó un libro titulado "Los Seres en el Tiempo" el cual fue un referente en la filosofía del siglo XX- uno de los trabajos más influyentes en filosofía en los últimos 100 años o tal vez más.

01:07:38:09-01:08:11:19
SEAN KELLY VO 

Heidegger’s idea was that the Platonic model has got the story completely backwards. That in fact, the most important thing that characterizes us isn’t our ability to sit back and think rationally and logically about any entity or any set of situations in the world...the most important thing about us is our ability to become INVOLVED in worlds and to develop skills for acting in those worlds that at root are not intellectual skills but very practical kinds of skills

La idea de Heidegger era que en el modelo Platónico estaba todo al revés. Que de hecho, lo más importante que nos caracteriza no es nuestra habilidad para sentarnos y pensar racional y lógicamente acerca de cualquier cosa o situación en el mundo. Lo más importante sobre nosotros es nuestra habilidad para INVOLUCRARNOS en mundos y desarrollar habilidades para actuar en esos mundos.

01:08:11:19-01:08:33:01
JOHN HAUGELAND VO
Skillful coping is being ale to do things with your hands like painting, or handwriting, or woodworking….. Oh sports is another swell example..that you learn how to do but when you are asked how you do it you can’t actually say, "Well I just well you know I’m trying to hit the ball…how am I trying to hit the ball? I don’t know..I’m JUST swinging the bat," but you’re not JUST swinging the bat - you may be talking to someone who’s really good at it!
Las habilidades se refiere a tener la capacidad para hacer cosas con tus manos como pintar, escribir, trabajar la madera... Los deportes es otro buen ejemplo. Aprendes cómo hacerlo pero cuando te preguntan cómo lo haces, no puedes solo decir: Bueno, ya sabes, solo trato de patear la pelota... ¿Cómo trato de pegarle a la pelota? No lo sé..SOLAMENTE muevo el bate", pero no SOLAMENTE estas pegándole con el bate - puede que estés hablando con alguien que es bueno con eso!

01:08:34:17-01:08:49:20
TAYLOR CARMAN:
So Heidegger is really confronting the entire tradition of western philosophy going back to the ancient Greeks and from the earliest times, philosophy was….uh, well, let me start over again that was terrible.
Entonces, Heidegger está realmente enfrentándose a toda la tradición de la filosofía occidental remontándose a los antiguos Griegos y, desde los primeros tiempos, la filosofía era... bueno, eso no ha estado bien, déjame decirlo de otra manera.

01:09:04:13-01:09:18:14
HIROSHI SAKAGUCHI VO:
My name is Hiroshi Sakaguchi. I am a carpenter. I build older Japanese houses in the countryside and also I make new buildings too.
Mi nombre es Hiroshi Sakaguchi. Soy carpintero. Construyo casas Japonesas antiguas en el campo y también construyo edificios nuevos.

01:09:44:12-01:10:01:10
MARK WRATHALL VO 
If you think about a hammer in a philosophical way or what people would call a commonsensical way, you’d look at the properties the hammer has…the shape it has, the color it has. And Heidegger said that’s wrong – if you want to see what a hammer is, you don’t think about the properties,
Si tú piensas en un martillo de una forma filosófica o lo que la gente llamaría de una forma sensata, verás las propiedades que tiene un martillo... la forma que tiene, su color. Y Heidegger dijo que eso era incorrecto - si quieres ver lo que realmente es un martillo, no piensas en sus propiedades,

01:10:01:10-01:10:16:18
You don’t describe it, you don’t explain it, you pick it up and you start driving nails. And you really only see what he hammer is when you have the skills to hammer well. Without those, the hammer will never really show itself to you.
No lo describes, no lo explicas, lo tomas y comienzas a clavar clavos. Y solamente ves lo que un martillo realmente es cuando tienes la habilidad para usarlo. Sin esto, el martillo nunca se va a mostrar ante ti.

01:10:17:19-01:10:21:02
ANNE SAKAGUCHI VO, Hiroshi's wife.
The Japaenese word for tool is dogo, and it translates into the way of carpentry.
La palabra Japonesa para 'herramienta' es 'dogo', y se traduce como el camino de la carpintería.

01:10:21:22-01:10:31:16
MARK WRATHALL VO
And that’s a very sensitive description of what a tool is. A tool isn't an instrument that you focus on, a tool is literally a way the carpenter has of engaging with the world.
Y esa es una descripción muy sensitiva de lo que una herramienta es. Una herramienta no es un instrumento en el que te centras, una herramienta es literalmente una manera en la que un carpintero se relaciona con el mundo.

01:10:33:23-01:10:45:22 
HRIOSHI SAKAGUCHI VO
I saved money to buy tools a, planer. I would hold it in my sleep! Sleep together with my friend! I so loved it!
Ahorraba dinero para comprar herramientas. ¡Lo abrazaría! ¡Dormiría junto a mi amigo! ¡Lo amaría tanto !

01:10:47:11-01:11:09:08
SEAN KELLY VO:

You're ability and your skill for hammering with a hammer, although when you acquire it, it might require a little bit of thought so that you don't bang your thumb every once in while and that kind of thing.

When you've got the skill as a real skilled carpenter, the LAST thing that you want is to be thinking about or rationally analyzing or stepping back from the activity you are involved in.
Cuando obtienes la habilidad como la de un carpintero de verdad, la última cosa que quisieras es estar pensando, razonando o analizando o separándote de la actividad en la que estás involucrado.

01:11:16:13-01:11:28:00
ANNE SAKAGUCHI VO
He has done it for so long, like he started apprenticing when he was 15. So its so much in his body, the way he moves and its really like a martial art. It's very much a movement like a dance.
Lo ha hecho por mucho tiempo, comenzó a aprender cuando tenía 15 años. Por lo que su cuerpo está muy acostumbrado, la manera en que se mueve... es como un arte marcial. Es un movimiento muy parecido a un baile.

01:11:30:22-01:11:58:15
SEAN KELLY VO
You wanna allow the activity to go through your body cos your body has a certain kind of knowhow for operating in this domain that...that thought about the domain will typically get in the way of. This most fundamental way of interacting with out world, other people in our world...other objects, other tools in our world and so on...had been completely neglected for 2500 years of western history because of the influence of Plato.
Quieres permitir que la actividad vaya por todo tu cuerpo, porque tu cuerpo tiene un tipo de conocimiento para trabajar en este campo... que pensár en este trabajo te llevará poco a poco a lo que quieres. Esta forma fundamental de interactuar con nuestro mundo, con otras personas de nuestro mundo... otros objetos, otras herramientas, etc. ha sido completamente rechazada por los últimos 2500 años de historia occidental debido a la influencia de Platón.

LEAH CHASE: Head Chef, Dooky Chef Restaurant, New Orleans
Jefa de cocina, Restaurant Dooky Chef, Nueva Orleans

01:12:04:13-01:12:09:11
I'm Leah Chase at Dooky Chase's restaurant in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Soy Leah Chase, jefa de cocina del restaurante Dooky Chase's en Nueva Orleans, Louisiana.

01:12:10:06-01:12:23:17
LEAH'S FRIEND VO
She is the grande dame of Creole cooking in New Orleans, Louisiana. She is the girl who has the nerve to chastise President Obama for putting a little hot sauce in his gumbo before he tastes it.
Ella es la 'gran dama' de la cocina criolla en Nueva Orleans, Louisiana. Ella es la mujer que tiene el valor para regañar al Presidente Obama por poner un poco de salsa picante en su comida antes de probarla.

01:12:23:17-01:12:35:06
LEAH CHASE VO
Never did I think I would be good enough to serve a president. When I came here I knew nothing, I'd never been in the inside of a restaurant in my life at 18 years old, never...
Nunca pensé que fuera lo suficientemente buena para servirle al presidente. Cuando llegué aquí no sabía nada. Nunca había estado en un restaurante en toda mi vida con 18 años, nunca...

01:12:36:06-01:12:53:00
I went in this woman's restaurant, she taught me everything I know. One thing I learned, to love that restaurant, I learned to love food, I learned to appreciate it and I always said this is what I want to do.
Fui al restaurante de una mujer, ella me enseñó todo lo que sé. Una cosa que aprendí fue a amar ese restaurante, aprendí a amar la comida, aprendí a apreciarla y siempre dije que esto era lo que quería hacer.

01:12:55:22-01:13:19:09
EDGAR CHASE:
She has 60 plus years of experienced cooking. People think of recipes, she is the recipe you know...when we are back there cooking, we never looking in cook books, its just out the head. What we wanna cook today? We wanna cook tomato and basil soup and I think we wanna add some popcorn in the middle and then you'll get the butter flavor of the popcorn. It's just amazing the different dishes we come up with or she comes up with just off the cuff.
Ella tiene más de 60 años de experiencia en la cocina. La gente piensa en recetas, ella es la receta, ¿sabes? cuando estamos ahí detrás cocinando, nunca miramos los libros de cocina, lo llevamos dentro. ¿Qué vamos a cocinar hoy? Vaamos a hacer tomate y sopa de albahaca y creo que vamos a añadir un poco de maíz en el medio y así obtendremos el sabor a mantequilla del maíz. Es impresionante ver cómo crea asombrosos platos de una forma tan sencilla y de la nada.

01:13:29:19-01:13:44:04
MARK WRATHALL VO
The great thing about being a philosopher is that it is very hard to test what we say. You can say anything you want and we are usually dealing in such abstract, general things that you never have to prove it. The theories of the mind have been put to the test with the development of the computer.
La mejor parte de ser un filósofo es que es muy difícil probar lo que decimos. Tú puedes decir lo que quieras y por lo general estamos tratando con cosas que nunca tendrás que probar. Las teorías de la mente han sido puestas a prueba con el desarrollo del ordenador.

III. The Artificial Intelligence Debate
III. El debate sobre la Inteligencia Artificial

01:13:48:14-01:13:54:23
MARK WRATHALL VO 
Using computers we were finally in a position to test thousands of years of philosophical theory about how the mind works.

01:13:57:08-01:14:10:01
To a lot of people it seemed like the computer finally offered us a chance to construct a mind, using as our model all these philosophical theories we had developed. Bert Dreyfus' genius was recognizing that this was what was going on.
Al usar los ordenadores, estábamos finalmente en una posición de probar miles de años de teorías filosóficas acerca de cómo trabaja la mente. Para mucha gente parecía que   finalmente el ordenador nos ofrecería una oportunidad para construir una mente, usando como modelo todas esas teorías filosóficas desarrolladas previamente. El genio de Bert Dreyfus reconoció que esto es lo que estaba sucediendo.

01:14:11:15-01:14:17:08
JOHN HAUGELAND VO
The climate at the time was one of great excitement, with regard to the prospect of artificial intelligence.
El sentimiento en ese momento era de emoción total, con la posibilidad de la inteligencia artificial.

01:14:17:08-01:14:30:07
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
There were these people in the AI lab, Artificial Intelligence lab, claiming that they had found the rules and symbolic representations that would soon enable computers to be intelligent.
Estas personas en el laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial (IA) decían que habían encontrado las reglas y representaciones simbólicas que permitirían que muy pronto una computadora fuera inteligente.

01:14:31:18-01:14:39:09
SEAN KELLY VO
Bert was a junior faculty member at MIT in the humanities department, not the most prominent department at MIT.
Bert era un miembro del departamento de humanidades en el Instituto de Tecnología de Massachusetts, no era el más prominente departamento en el Instituto.

01:14:40:01-01:14:44:23
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
They were saying "look we know how the mind works, you philosophers have missed it".
Ellos decían "miren, sabemos cómo trabaja la mente, ustedes los filósofos se han equivocado".

01:14:45:05-01:14:55:14
SEAN KELLY VO
He was going up against very prominent researchers at his own institution, who were in the more prominent departments at MIT, the engineering and computer science kind of departments. 
Él estaba poniéndose en contra de cada investigador en su propio Instituto, incluso en contra de aquellos en departamentos más prominentes como el de ingeniería o de ciencias computacionales.

01:14:55:14-01:14:59:07
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
They were saying that we don't have to care about what Dreyfus says, he's just a philosopher.
Ellos decían que no teníamos que preocuparnos por lo que Dreyfus dijera, él era solo un filósofo.

01:15:00:04-01:15:20:14
MARK WRATHALL VO 
What programmers were doing was trying to make a computer intelligent by giving it the kind of thoughts that they thought humans had. So you'd make an exhaustive list, there is a table in the room, the table is brown the table is hard, the table is this size and you can see this could go on for a very, very long time.
Lo que los programadores estaban haciendo era tratar de que un ordenador fuese inteligente dándole el tipo de pensamientos que ellos creían que los humanos tenemos. Entonces hacían una larga lista, había una mesa en la habitación, la mesa era marrón y robusta, la mesa era de este tamaño y podías ver que esto seguía y seguía por mucho tiempo.


01:15:20:14-01:15:39:16

HUBERT DREYFUS VO
And its got to do a lot with understanding what's relevant. What's relevant right now is that I am sitting here talking to you. The lights are relevant, the cameras are relevant. If there is any dust on the floor or under this chair it is not, you just can't take account for all the facts in this room, there are an infinite number of facts in this room.
Y tiene mucho que ver con entender lo que es relevante. Lo que es relevante ahora mismo es que estoy sentado aquí hablando contigo. Las luces son relevantes, las cámaras son relevantes. Si hay algo de polvo en el suelo o debajo de esta silla no es relevante, simplemente no puedes tener en cuenta todos los detalles de esta habitación, hay un número infinito de detalles en este cuarto.


01:15:39:23-01:16:14:07

JOHN HAUGELAND VO
The systems would get hung on metaphors or hung up on inferences that were dependent on knowledge of ordinary things in everyday life, like if you pick up this piece of weed here and drop it will fall right? And when it will fall it won't make a sound because it is soft. Things like this that everybody knows. How much stuff like that do you know? A hundred things? A thousand things? Maybe a million things? Right...
Los sistemas podrían quedarse bloqueados en metáforas o en interferencias que dependen del conocimiento de cosas ordinarias de la vida diaria, como si tú tomases este pedazo de hierba y lo soltaras, va a caer ¿verdad? Y cuando caiga no va a emitir ningún sonido porque es blanda. Todo el mundo sabe cosas como estas. ¿Cuántas cosas como esta sabes tú? ¿Cientos de cosas? ¿Miles de cosas? ¿Tal vez millones de cosas? Correcto...

01:16:14:23-01:16:27:07
MARK WRATHALL VO 
And I think the hope was that once we got a enough of those facts into a computer then the computer would start acting like we do. If Heidegger was right and Bert Dreyfus was right you couldn't do that.
Y pienso que la creencia era que una vez que se hubieran tenido suficientes hechos dentro de un ordenador, comenzaría a actuar como nosotros lo hacemos. Si Heidegger estaba en lo correcto y Bert Dreyfus estaba en lo correcto, no podías hacer eso.

01:16:27:17-01:16:38:11
SEAN KELLY VO
Bert really though that the artificial intelligence community was basing their research program on a bad understanding of what it is to be the kind of beings that we are.
Bert realmente pensó que la comunidad de inteligencia artificial estaba basando su programa de investigación en un mal entendimiento de cómo es ser los seres humanos que somos.

01:16:39:18-01:16:48:04
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
Philosophy had finally discovered that this rationalist, atomistic, rule following understanding of how the mind works is wrong.
La filosofía había finalmente encotnrado después de 2.000 años que este razonamiento atomístico, que seguía reglas de entendimiento sobre cómo tranaja la mente, estaba equivocado.

01:16:48:15-01:17:12:03
SEAN KELLY VO
They had the Platonic idea that the kinds of beings that we are are rational computing mechanisms. We are logical characterizers of the universe and they thought that they could therefore replicate all of the things we do just by writing computer programs, which after all are very logical and very rational and follow rules very very well.
Tenían la idea Platónica de que éramos unos seres racionales mecánicos computacionales. Somos caracteres lógicos del universo y ellos pensaron que podían por lo tanto copiar todas las cosas que hacemos simplemente escribiendo programas computacionales, que después de todo son muy lógicos y racionales y siguen las reglas muy bien.

01:17:12:12-01:17:33:11
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
And moreover, sort of laughing, at the philosophy classes where they say "look you philosophers have been trying to understand perception and action and skill and all that for 2000 years and all you have gotten no where. We already have a very important clue and in another 8-10 years we'll have intelligent computers".
Y además, como una broma, en las clases de filosofía donde decían "ustedes los filósofos han estado tratando de entender la percepción, la acción y la habilidad durante 2000 años y no han llegado a ninguna parte. Nosotros ya tenemos una pista muy importante y en unos 8 o 10 años tendremos ordenadores inteligentes".

01:17:34:00-01:17:37:06
JOHN HAUGELAND VO
There was a lot of derision of Bert and his work.
Había mucha burla por Bert y su trabajo.

01:17:37:17-01:17:40:02
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
Their name for me was 'the weasel' apparently.
Aparentemente el nombre para mí era 'la comadreja'.

01:17:40:16-01:17:55:14
JOHN HAUGELAND VO
And Bert, pardon my putting it this way, is kind of an amusing looking character. He had brilliant orange hair and a petit little guy that moved around like a...I dont know...an insect or something!
Y Bert, perdón por decirlo de esta manera, es un tipo gracioso. Tenía una cabellera anaranjada y brillante, y era pequeño y se movía... no sé... ¡como un insecto o algo!

01:17:56:00-01:18:04:08
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
They said, "Dreyfus doesn't know anything about programming," I haven't a clue--they were right--about programming, "How can he be telling us that we can't do this?!?"
Ellos dijeron, "Dreyfus no sabe nada acerca de programación", No tengo ni idea (ellos estaban en lo cierto) acerca de programar, "¡¿Cómo puede decirnos que no podemos hacerlo?!"

01:18:04:08-01:18:12:06
TAYLOR CARMAN VO
In his view it was sort of 'the emperor had no clothes.' There was no support for this idea at all, so he started trying to show how implausible it is.
En su opinión, era algo como 'el emperador no tiene ropa'. No había ningún tipo de respaldo a sus ideas, por lo que comenzó a mostrar cuán inverosímil era.

01:18:12:06-01:18:34:10
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
Once, I was really brave. They said "we've got a car that will drive on the street in traffic from here to there with no human driver". And I said "I doubt it" and they said "we're telling you, we've got it" and I said "I'm telling you you haven't got it, you're lying!" And I was right...I mean it was just that reality was on my side.
Una vez fui muy valiente. Ellos dijeron "tenemos un coche que conducirá por la calle con tráfico desde aquí hasta allá sin un conductor humano". Yo dije " lo dudo" y ellos dijeron "te estamos diciendo, que ya lo tenemos" y yo dije "te estoy diciendo que no lo tenéis, ¡estáis mintiendo!" Y yo tenía razón...la realidad estaba de mi parte.

01:18:41:08-01:19:12:07
There this huge effort to suppress this criticism, mainly because there were millions of dollars at stake. DARPA gave them money for defense research, and they were afraid they would stop giving them money. And then when I was at MIT they were even more afraid because the AI lab got about a million dollars a year from DARPA for AI research. And they were afraid that if they ever read my paper they would take away their money. And in the end that is sort of what happened.
Luego, hubo un gran esfuerzo para suprimir las críticas, principalmente porque había muchos millones de dólares en juego. DARPA les daba dinero para investigación en defensa, y tenían miedo de que si DARPA leyera mi trabajo, ellos dejarían de darles dinero. Y luego cuando estaba en el MIT estaban todavía más asustados porque el laboratorio de IA obtenía cerca de un millón de dólares cada año para investigaciones. Y ellos temían de que si leían mi trabajo se llevarían el dinero. Y al final eso fue mas o menos lo que pasó.

01:19:12:14-01:19:17:01
SEAN KELLY VO
Ultimately I think it is fair to say that that criticism has won out.
Ahora pienso que es justo decir que esas críticas han ganado.

01:19:17:12-01:19:32:00
JOHN HAUGELAND VO
The claim was that you could build such and such machine and you could test that claim by seeing whether you could build such and such a machine. And it couldn't be done in the 1950's or the 60's and it hasn't been done even now.
La idea era que se podía construir una máquina y podías probar esa idea observando si podías construir esa máquina. Y no pudo hacerse en los cincuenta o en los sesenta, incluso ahora no ha podido hacerse.

01:19:32:20-01:20:26:08
Perhaps I can reach to one of the most fundamental aspects about the difference between human beings and machines by adverting to something about each of us with which we are all deeply familiar with. And that is that, it matters to us what happens to us in the world. It matters to us what happens to us, it mattes to us what happens to our friends, it matters to us the progress of science and philosophy. All of those are desiderata, those are things to build a life on that one can summarize in the phrase, 'giving a damn'. And if you have that phrase then you can say in a word, what AI has so far failed to come up with by saying the trouble with computers is they don't give a damn.
Tal vez puedo definir uno de los aspectos más fundamentales acerca de la diferencia entre los seres humanos y las máquinas, advirtiendo a ese algo acerca de nosotros con el cual estamos profundamente familiarizados. Y eso es que a nosotros nos importa lo que nos sucede en el mundo. Nos importa a nosotros lo que nos pasa a nosotros, nos importa lo que les pasa a nuestros amigos, nos importa el progreso de la ciencia y la filosofía. Esas son cosas para construir una vida que podemos resumir en una frase, 'importar un comino'.Y si tú tienes esa frase, entonces puedes decir en una palabra que a la inteligencia artificial y los ordenadores no les importa un comino.

01:20:27:06-01:20:35:00
TAYLOR CARMAN VO
What we are at bottom, much more fundamental that our being thinking subjects, is that we care about something. Something matters to us...
Al final, lo que somos, más que ser seres pensantes es, que a nosotros nos importa algo. Algo nos importa...


Seville, Spain
Sevilla, España

01:20:45:22-01:20:53:07
MANUEL MOLINA: Poet and Flamenco Master
MANUEL MOLINA: Poeta y Maestro del Flamenco

(ALREADY IN SPANISH WITH ENGLISH SUBTITLES)

'Get this straight/I was never perfect/I'm not now/And I never will be'

01:20:55:14-01:22:27:10
Flamenco is a culture... of communication between people, not on stage. 

Flamenco art is the most powerful drug. If you get hooked into it, there is no medicine to get you off it. 

Flamenco is not classical music, Flamenco is of the street.

It's not mechanical. Flamenco is laughter and tears at the same time. 

It's a way of feeling, of explaining what's happening to you. Mediated by music.

On the way to Sacromonte/I met some black eyes/that the greatest painter would pay money just to see

( Manuel Molina is one of Spain's most beloved flamenco musicians. In the 1970's he and his wife formed the successful Lole y Manuel, & they recorded 7 best selling albums. They filled stadiums with performances and their music has been featured in films like Kill Bill Vol. 2)

I sing to life and to the birds and to nature and to love and to caresses and to kisses.

If you asked me for the moon/I couldn't give it to you/ because the moon is imprisoned/in the Alhambra of Granada/ She's there as a slave/ of the Sultan's kisses

The guitar, like any instrument, is a dialogue between the guitar player and the guitar.

01:22:28:17-01:22:48:21
CHARLES TAYLOR VO
The really important ends of human life are ends that are only perceptible if you let yourself be within the human situation totally. I mean, take love, what is it to have a really loving relationship? What is it to have a real communion? What is it to have a really meaningful bit of music, you can go on and on. 

01:22:52:15-01:23:40:16
Nobody could lose touch with that aspect of being human entirely but they always denature it. Of course people were moved by music, people were moved by art, people were moved by love etc. so they invented various ways of describing that. I mean some kind of animal type sympathy bonds people, so that can explain why love is important. And then they explain that certain type of emotions we find pleasurable  are awoken in us by listenting to certain types of music. Then you get incidentally an interesting shift where people talk about the validity of art in terms of this notion of aesthetics, and in other words, in terms of our reaction. Anthesis is our sensation, in terms of the profound truth that you can find in a great work of art, you can find the truth about human beings.


IV. MOODS
IV. ESTADOS DE ÁNIMO

01:23:49:11-01:24:12:18
MARK WRATHALL VO 
Moods don't happen without our heads, but that doesn't mean they happen in our heads. The analogy I like to use is a radio...right, a radio gets tuned into different radio stations, as you turn the dial you get different songs playing on the radio. That doesn't mean the stations are all inside the radio, it just means that without the radio getting tuned to them you are not in a position to pick them up.
Los estados de ánimo no se presentan sin nuestra mente, ¿verdad? Pero eso no significa que sucedan en nuestra mente. La analogía que me gusta usar es la de una radio...una radio se sintoniza en diferentes estaciones, conforme sintonizas, diferentes canciones suenan en la radio. Eso no significa que las estaciones estén dentro de al radio, solo significa que sin la radio sintonizando es posible escuchar la estación.

01:24:13:05-01:24:46:18
The traditional philosophical way of understanding the world and thinking of kind of inside subjective stuff, thoughts inside of us and then facts, objects out in the world. One thing that that way of thinking about the world does, is it makes all sorts of things inside of us, moods, emotions. Right those are kind of subjective things that we project out on the world, onto things. So you wanna say, the world's not happy or sad, we're happy and sad and we project our happiness out onto the world.
La forma filosófica tradicional de entender el mundo es pensar acerca de las cosas subjetivas, pensamientos dentro de nosotros y luego los hechos, objetos a nuestro alrededor. Una cosa acerca de esa forma de pensar es que provoca toda clase de cosas dentro de nosotros, como los estados de ánimo, emociones. Bueno, esas son el tipo de cosas que proyectamos hacia el mundo, sobre las cosas. Entonces tú quieres decir, el mundo no está feliz o triste, nosotros estamos felices y tristes y proyectamos nuestra felicidad hacia el mundo.

01:24:47:14-01:25:05:07
When this phenomenological tradition started to undercut the distinction between subjects and objects, what that did was allow us to, in a much more natural way, make room for moods, emotions to be out in the world.
Cuando esta tradición fenomenológica comenzó a marcar una distinción entre objetos y sujetos, lo que eso permitió fue, en una forma más natural, hacer espacio a los estados de ánimo, permitir a las emociones salir al mundo.

01:25:05:19-01:25:18:07
CHARLES TAYLOUR VO
When you talk of something like a joyful mood in the room, its plainly not a creation in my mind or your mind. What it is if you like is a creation of our interaction.  

01:25:18:11-01:25:36:00
MANUEL MOLINA (IN SPANISH)
Do you remember that afternoon in Triana?/ I gave you a kiss and suddenly Seville was illuminated/

01:25:40:19-01:26:29:13
MARK WRATHALL VO 
I think this matches our common sense way of talking about it. So we talk about the mood in the room.There was a happy mood as we walked into the party; or the mood of the nation is downcast right now or depressed as a nation. Now I think that is capturing something real about our experience of the world and the way the world isn't just these sort of neutral facts. But that it lines up in particular ways, it's illuminated in particular ways and when we get in the right mood it is a way of getting in tune with the world so that it can show certain features to us. So when you are happy the world looks different, and it is not just that you're interpreting the world through a different filter, but its that your happiness tunes you into features of the world that you weren't paying attention to.

Pienso que esto concuerda con nuestro sentido común de hablar acerca de ello. Entonces, hablamos del estado de ánimo en la habitación. Hay un estado de ánimo alegre al entrar en una fiesta; o el estado de ánimo del país está en decadencia o en un estado depresivo como nación. Ahora, pienso que está capturando algo real acerca de nuestra experiencia del mundo y la forma en que el mundo no es solamente un tipo de hechos neutrales. Pero eso se puede tomar de maneras diferentes, y cuando nos ponemos en el estado de ánimo correcto, es una forma de estar en sintonía con el mundo y de esa manera nos puede mostrar ciertas cosas. Cuando estás feliz el mundo se ve diferente, y no significa que estés viendo el mundo con un filtro diferente, sino que tu felicidad te pone en sintonía con cosas del mundo a las cuales no les habías prestado atención.

01:26:42:00-01:27:06:07
Just as skills allow things to show themselves, they also allow people to show them and be the people that they are. The craftsperson as they learn how to work with wood, how to hammer, how to use the equipment, they start to see things that someone without those skills doesn't see. They become someone who inhabits a world differently.
Así como las habilidades permiten a las cosas mostrarse a sí mismas, también permiten a las personas mostrarse y ser las personas que son. Los carpinteros, conforme aprenden a trabajar la madera, a usar el martillo, el equipo, comienzan a ver cosas que alguien sin esas habilidades no puede ver. Se convierten en alguien que habita en un mundo de manera diferente.

01:27:15:21-01:27:21:07
TAO:
Can you describe the process of choosing the piece of wood, how do you tell if its the right piece of wood or the wrong piece of wood?
Podría describir el proceso para escoger un pedazo de madera, ¿cómo puedes saber si es un pedazo de madera bueno o malo?

01:27:21:07-01:28:07:04
HIROSHI SAKAGUCHI VO
The same as a human being. Personality.
Lo mismo que un ser humano. Personalidad

You can see the color, some have a horrible personality. That kind of wood you can't use, it's twisted. Some stores sell that kind of wood. Same price!
Puedes ver el color, algunos tienen una personalidad horrible. Ese tipo de madera no puedes usarla, no es útil. Algunas tiendas venden ese tipo de madera. ¡Por el mismo precio!

You work on it all the time, Color difference. Grain, tight grain, loose grain. Big grain...Heavy wood. Big beautiful yellow color.
Trabajas sobre esa pieza todo el tiempo, diferencia de color. Grano, duro, blando. Grano grande... Madera pesada. Con un color amarillo hermoso.

Dark brown color...unbelievable.
Color café obscuro... increíble.

If I come across very good, nice wood. I feel good. If you can't find good wood for a couple of days, it's not fun.
Si paso por donde hay madera muy buena, me siento muy bien. Si no encuentras madera buena en un par de días, no es divertido.

V. THE RULES OF THE GAME
V. LAS REGLAS DEL JUEGO

01:28:19:04-01:28:28:20
MARK WRATHALL VO 
Our bodies, our ways of being, get attuned to the world and there is a kind of understanding there that we can't explain, we're very poor at articulating.
Nuestros cuerpos, nuestra forma de ponernos en sintonía con el mundo, hay un tipo de entendimiento que no podemos explicar, somos muy malos para articular.

01:28:29:03-01:28:51:12
Rules work by ignoring details. Anyone who's very skilled in a domain knows that being very skilled means responding not just in general terms to the situation but responding very specifically to what the situation demands. So a chef working in a kitchen can't go by the rules of a cookbook.
Las reglas funcionan si ignoramos los detalles, alguien que es muy hábil en alguna actividad, sabe cómo responder no solo a una situación en general sino a lo que la situación exige. Entonces, un chef en una cocina no puede seguir las reglas de un libro de cocina.

01:28:52:00-01:28:35:17
LEAH CHASE VOS
Let me tell you about rules and cooking. You know, I had a book written by a woman, and she put the recipes in the book that her housekeeper or at that time was the nanny of the house, you know, but she was the lady who ran the house. So naturally all her friends, when the lady wrote the cookbook somewhere bout' 1910 or so, they asked her "why do you giver her all your recipes and all your things?"
So her answer was a good one, she said "you know, cooking is like religion. Rules don't no more make a cook than sermons make a saint".
Déjame hablarte sobre las reglas y la cocina. Tengo un libro escrito por una mujer y ella puso las recetas en el libro, recetas para el ama de casa o la niñera, o la persona que en ese momento estuviera encargada de la casa. Entonces sus amigos le preguntaron a la señora, cuando escribió el libro alrededor de 1910, le preguntaron "¿Por qué le diste todas tus recetas a ella?". Su respuesta fue muy buena, ella dijo: "Sabes, cocinar es como una religión. Las reglas no hacen a un cocinero, como el hábito no hace al monje".

01:28:35:17-01:29:45:10
So you can have all the recipes, all the rules you want and you can take the same things I'm doing here and maybe you can't do the same things I do.
Entonces puedes tener todas las recetas, todas las reglas que quieras, puedes usar todas las cosas que estoy haciendo aquí pero no podrías hacerlo de la misma manera en que yo lo hago.


VI RISK
RIESGO

01:29:50:17-01:30:07:16
HUBERT DREYFUS VO

Risk is absolutely important in becoming a master, in fact in acquiring any skills at all, because you have to leave the rules behind and stop doing what one generally does and doing the standard thing and you push out into your own experience of the world.

01:30:08:10-01:30:17:09
MARK WRATHALL VO

You have to take risks, you have to do something that the rules don't tell you to do so that to you can start to learn to get tuned into the particular features of the situation.

01:30:24:13-01:30:26:13

TAO VO
What are the most important things to master?




01:30:26:21-01:30:36:10
BOB TEAGUE VO

Learning to read ocean conditions, knowing your boat, practice, experience and I guess there is an element of luck and then probably have some balls too.

01:30:37:00-01:30:46:21

TONY SCARLATA VO

Just the human element, I mean controling these boats when they take off, they won't do this, they'll climb this way like a plane and the next thing you know you are going swimming.

01:30:47:08-01:31:14:00
HUBERT DREYFUS VO



The question that arises, whether the people that are running speed boat races are bringing out something important about the boat or about the water that they are sensitive to and nobody has been responsive to before or, whether the water and the boats are just means to achieve some particular goal, like being the fastest boat. It may be that some of them are doing one and some of them are doing another and some of them are doing both.



01:31:16:19-01:31:29:18
MARK WRATHALL VO
So the willingness to take risks is a very important stage in moving beyond just competence in following rules and doing what everyone else does, to getting to the position where you learn what your supposed to be responding to. 


01:31:37:17-01:32:01:17
HUBERT DREYFUS VO

What distinguishes the kind of risks we're interested in from just bravado, is whether the risks are taken in the interest of what somebody is committed to. What they've defined themselves in terms of, and what makes the meaningful differences in their lives. That kind of risk is a special kind of risk that is a necessary part of becoming a master in anything.

01:32:01:23-01:32:21:03
TAYLOR CARMAN VO

Heidegger calls this, fairly dramatically, running forward into death. And what that means I think is being willing to embrace a particular kind of possibility and let other possibilities die off. Risks of looking ridiculous, for example, risks of genuinely losing things you might regret losing later on.






01:32:24:05-01:32:34:06
JUMANEE SMITH - JAZZ TRUMPETER
Taking risks is important, it is an essential part of Jazz. Improvisation is supposed to be an element of freedom, venturing into space that hasn't been seen before.
Correr riesgos es importante, es una parte esencial del Jazz. La improvisación es un elemento de libertad, aventurarse en un mundo que no ha sido explorado.

01:32:36:11-01:33:00:22
You are supposed to be always trying something new, instead of playing patterns or playing something everyone has heard before. Sometimes I would surprise myself, sometimes I listen back to something I've played and be like 'Ah man, did I play that?' in a good way you know. And then other times I'm like 'oh man, did I play that?'
Siempre debes estar intentando cosas nuevas, en vez de tocar partituras que todo mundo ha tocado antes. A veces me sorprendo a mí mismo, a veces escucho algo que toqué y me digo: "¡Caray ! ¿Yo toqué eso?", de una manera positiva. Pero otras veces me he dicho "¡Uy! ¿Yo toqué eso?".

01:33:07:01-01:33:18:01
LEAH CHASE VO
Why you do the things you do? I like what I do, but I've learnt I don't care how old you are, you take a risk. You do what you have to do and keep going.
¿Por qué haces las cosas que haces? Me gusta lo que hago, pero he aprendido que no importa la edad que tengas, tienes que correr el riesgo. Haces lo que debes hacer y sigues adelante.

01:33:18:09-01:33:42:21
MARK WRATHALL VO
In addition to the fact that you can't ever get beyond a rule governed behavior without taking risks, there is also a kind of exhilaration or joy in human existence, leaving the rules behind, going out on the edge, letting the world show something new to them. The risk takers are the ones who disclose new worlds, disclose new ways to be human, new ways to behave and discover new things about the world.
Además del hecho de que nunca puedes ir más allá de un comportamiento basado en reglas sin correr riesgos, hay también un tipo de gozo en la existencia humana, dejar las reglas a un lado, vivir al límite, dejar al mundo que muestre cosas nuevas. Los que corren riesgos son los que abren nuevos mundos, descubren nuevas formas de ser humano, nuevas formas de comportarse y descubrir cosas nuevas sobre el mundo.


VII. COMMITMENT 

VII. COMPROMISO

01:33:55:17-01:34:22:17
HIROSHI SAKAGUCHI VO
I started with this man, he taught me how to sharpen. But he didn't teach it all, I looked at what he does, I saw how he did it many times.
My teacher didn't teach me anything. Sometimes I clean up the floor for a couple years.
He said "Go clean up the saudust!"
So I go and clean up the sawdust.

Empecé con él, me enseñó a afilar herramientas. Pero no me lo enseñó todo, observé lo que hace y vi como lo hacía muchas veces.
Mi profesor no me enseñó nada. A veces limpio el suelo durante un par de años.
Él Dijo: “¡Ve a limpiar el serrín!”
Así que fui y limpié el serrín.

01:34:23:03-01:34:33:17
SEAN KELLY VO
You commit yourself and it is through your commitment that all of a sudden the world is organized in terms of things that are meaningful to do and things that are irrelevant to do. 

Te comprometes y gracias a ese compromiso de repente el mundo está organizado en función de las cosas significativas que hacer y las cosas irrelevantes. Y ese tipo de organización, esa jerarquía de grandes diferencias, la jerarquía de las cosas importantes, verdaderamente importantes y las cosas que son totalmente irrelevantes para ti.

01:34:33:23-01:34:55:01
HIROSHI SAKAGUCHI VO
I don't stop just for money to quickly get the job done. I like to do it! Sometimes I'd rather lose money! I over estimate and over buy material. Sometimes my wife gets very angry!

No espero a que el dinero haga el trabajo. ¡Me gusta hacerlo! ¡A veces preferiría perder dinero! Sobreestimo las cosas y compro demasiadas. ¡A veces mi mujer se enfada mucho!

01:34:57:09-01:35:31:02
SEAN KELLY VO
What happens when you have this commitment to a particular something that's finite and that you could lose and that's risky. And you hold yourself open to it completely, what happens in that situation is that you get a sort of meaningful existence and the meaningful existence is the one that identifies who you are, it is your meaningful existence. It is the one that picks you out as an individual because nobody else understands the particular hierarchy of meaningful differences the way you do.

Eso pasa cuando has llegado a ese compromiso con algo concreto y finito y que podrías perder y es arriesgado. Y te aferras completamente a ello, lo que ocurre en esa situación es que obtienes una especie de existencia significativa y la existencia significativa es la que te identifica, es tu existencia significativa. Es la que te distingue como un individuo porque nadie más entiende la jerarquía concreta de diferencias significativas del mismo modo que tú.


VIII. AUTHENTICITY

VIII. AUTENTICIDAD

01:35:41:04-01:36:44:11
SEAN KELLY VO
The issue is what is it to be the kind of being that we are, and you want to explore that issue by asking what is it to be the best version of us. When we're operating at our best, we're precisely not detached from the situation we're involved in. Rather, we've opened ourselves up to being called to act in a certain way in a situation. So you find examples of this all over the place. I read recently a book by Jon McPhee called A Sense of Where You Are which is a book about Bill Bradley who was an extraordinary college basketball player and went on to be a great basketball player in the NBA. He says the most amazing thing about Bradley when he's taking the ball down the court is his vision. He says he doesn't seem to be looking at anything. Rather, he's a glaze of panoptic attention. He's not focused on anything but hes ready to be drawn into whatever it is that's calling him to act at the moment.

La afirmación que nos interesa es la afirmación de que estamos funcionando lo mejor que podemos. La cuestión es lo que es ser el tipo de ser que somos y queremos explorar esa cuestión preguntando cómo es ser la mejor versión de nosotros mismos.

01:36:51:18-01:37:13:06
TAYLOR CARMAN VO
Authenticity means owning up to the situation you are in, confronting the situation and doing just what needs to be done. Its a responsiveness to the unique particular situation you are in. When you are authentic you're resolute, you are confronting the situation you are in as this particular situation not just as an example of a kind of situation.

La autenticidad significa reconocer la situación en la que te encuentras, hacerle frente y hacer lo que necesita hacerse. Es una respuesta ante la situación concreta en la que te encuentras. Cuando eres auténtico eres decidido, te enfrentas a la situación en la que te encuentras particularmente y no solo como un ejemplo de ese tipo de situaciones.
01:37:14:05-01:37:38:23
SEAN KELLY VO
I call it the 'teenage boy phenomenon', when boys often are trying to figure how they ought to act and what it is cool to do and what it is uncool to do in particular situations, you often find some of them who do what they're sure one ought to do in a particular situation and they do it because they're sure they ought to do it. And it's always a disaster.

Yo lo llamo el “fenómeno del adolescente”, a menudo cuando los chicos intentan averiguar cómo deberían actuar, lo que mola y no mola hacer en determinadas situaciones, muchas veces te encuentras a algunos que hacen lo que están seguros que se debería hacer en una situación concreta y lo hacen porque están seguros que deberían hacerlo. Y siempre es un desastre.

01:37:39:09-01:38:03:20
AUSTIN PERALTA: JAZZ PIANIST
When kids are coming up and they are learning to play in schools and they are in that formal environment where they are in front of a teacher playing music, they are forced to bring something to the table and told to get better and better. You know 'you're not playing well, you need to play better today'. What's lacking is listening to everyone else in the room and sort of understanding that I don't have to rely on just everything I know if I listen to the other guys at the moment I can come up with new things on the spot.

That is when I'm like really in tune with it or in touch or channeling if you want to say.

Cuando los chicos crecen y aprenden a tocar en el colegio y se encuentran el un ambiente informal donde están delante de un profesor tocando música, se ven forzados a aportar algo y se les pide que mejoren. Sabes que “no estás tocando bien, hoy necesitas tocar mejor”. Lo que hace falta es escuchar al resto de personas y entender que no es necesario basarte en lo que sabes y si escuchas a los otros chicos en ese momento se te puede ocurrir algo entonces.

En ese momento es cuando he conectado con ello, o encajado o canalizado o como quieras llamarlo.

01:38:38:10-01:39:01:14
TAYLOR CARMAN VO
So the authentic person is the one who will confront this concrete situation, who will do what needs to be done, is responsive to it, tune to it and who therefore has a certain kind of spontaneity that you don't get if you insist on falling back on rules, principals, procedures, generic formulas for how to act and what to think and what to say and how to be.

Así que la persona auténtica es aquella que se enfrenta a esa situación concreta, quien hace lo necesario, es receptivo, sintoniza con el momento y tiene una cierta espontaneidad que no obtienes si te empeñas en seguir las reglas, principios, procedimientos y fórmulas genéricas sobre cómo actuar, qué pensar, qué decir y cómo ser.

01:39:01:16-01:39:17:09
AUSTIN PERALTA VO
When I was only playing classical I would just read what was just on the page, learn it and memorize it and play it. With jazz, when I'm in that zone, I'm not even thinking about what am I playing or what note, its just what is going on in the moment with the other musicians and this is what I'm bringing out, it's really hard to describe.

Cuando solo tocaba música clásica solo leía lo que estaba escrito, lo memorizaba y lo tocaba. Con el jazz, en ese ámbito, ni siquiera pienso en lo que estoy tocando o en qué nota, sino solo en lo que está pasando en ese momento con otros músicos y me dejo llevar, es muy difícil de describir.

01:39:18:10-01:40:16:17
TAYLOR AUSTIN: JAZZ DRUMMER
It is a very common quality for people that are learning how to play jazz to be very introverted with their music. Practicing every day is something that you do by yourself, you open up your practice book and you read your notes or whatever, you practice your rudiments on your drums, these are things that you are doing all by yourself. And so when you get to a performance centre and you are around other musicians there is a huge tendency to sort of get in your head and go back to what you're used to do doing every day, 6 hours a day is just playing by yourself and not really listening for the ways to react to what it going on outwards. And as you grow older and as you get more experience and as you learn to master your instrument, master music making you learn to include the other musicians and then even further include the audience and also include the nuances and the different sort of aspects around the room and bring that in and use that to help you create the music that you are creating for because you are always creating music for somebody.

Las personas que empiezan a aprender cómo tocar jazz tienen en común que son muy introvertidas con su música. Practicar a diario es algo que haces en soledad, abres tu partitura y lees las notas, practicas las nociones básicas de la batería, son cosas que haces solo. Entonces cuando llegas a un local y estás rodeado de otros músicos existe una gran tendencia a aislarte y volver a lo que estás acostumbrado a hacer cada día durante seis horas al día: tocar solo sin buscar la manera de interactuar con lo que está pasando fuera. Y al crecer y obtener más experiencia, al aprender a dominar tu instrumento y la música aprendes a incluir a los otros músicos y entonces vas más lejos e incluyes al público e incluso los matices y los diferentes ambientes de la sala y utilizas eso para ayudarte a crear música, porque siempre creas música para alguien. 

01:40:16:23-01:40:52:03
TAYLOR CARMAN VO
Actors actually have this wonderful expression, very Heidegerrian, though I don't think they know it. Which is that when you are on stage and you are acting you have to, as they say, you have to own it. That's a beautiful way of describing, you know, going for it and really putting yourself into it and not wanting to step back and distance yourself from what you are up to. It is very tempting to want to sort of keep the back door open so that you can step out of your actions and disembowel them and rethink them or play the scene all over again and so on...But If you are on stage and acting, you can tell when an actor is reticent in that way.

Los actores normalmente tienen esa maravillosa expresión, muy Heidegeriana, aunque no creo que lo sepan. Consiste en que cuando estás en el escenario y estás actuando tienes que sentirlo, como se suele decir. Es una forma bonita de describirlo, ir a por ello y realmente entregarte sin querer retroceder y distanciarte de lo que estás haciendo. Es muy tentador mantener la puerta de atrás abierta para que puedas distanciarte de tus acciones y destriparlas y replanteártelas o repetir la escena de nuevo… Pero si estás actuando en el escenario, puedes notar cuando un actor es reticente en ese sentido.

01:40:52:05-01:41:18:13
SEAN KELLY VO
In these kind of situations, they experience themselves as having the action drawn out of them and you'll find it in sporting events and I'm sure that you'll find it in music, you'll find it in any domain where operating in the domain requires a sophisticated kind of skill and requires a kind of openness to what is going on in the moment, and that goes also for the domain of living a life.

En ese tipo de situaciones, sienten que la acción sale de ellos, puede verse en eventos deportivos y estoy seguro de que puede verse en música, en cualquier campo donde se requieran unas habilidades sofisticadas y una transparencia en ese momento y que también se aplica a la vida.

01:41:18:18-01:41:23:07
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
There is something weird about this tea, I don't know why but it doesn't pour. So let's not worry about that.

Al té le pasa algo, no sé por qué pero no cae. No nos preocupemos por eso.

01:41:23:07-01:41:27:22
TAO
No No go ahead, it's pouring its just poring very slowly.

No, no, sigue, está cayendo pero muy lentamente.

01:41:27:22-01:41:36:19
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
Very slowly, I should give it artificial respiration, I never did this before, see if that saves it. Ah ha! I could become a tea doctor...

Muy lentamente, debería hacerle el boca a boca. Nunca lo he hecho antes, a ver si se salva. ¡Ja, ja! tendré que ser médico del té.

IX. BEYOND CONFORMITY

IX. MÁS ALLÁ DE LA CONFORMIDAD

01:41:46:00-01:41:52:04
MARK WRATHALL VO
There's a real tension in societies between conformism and individualism. 

01:41:56:19-01:42:03:17
In order for society to function, there has to be a considerable amount of regularity in human behavior.

Hay una gran tensión en las sociedades entre el conformismo y el individualismo.

Para que la sociedad funcione en el comportamiento humano debe haber una gran cantidad de regularidad.

01:42:03:20-01:42:20:14
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
There is what Heidegger calls "The One", which is his name for the social norms. That is you do what "one" does: You drive on the right hand side of the street. You wear clothes. You stand the distance that one is supposed to stand in your culture when you talk to people, and so forth.

Es lo que Heidegger denomina “uno”, que se refiere a las normas sociales. Haces lo que “uno” hace: conduces por el lado derecho. Llevas ropa. Dejas la distancia que se supone que debes dejar cuando hablas con las personas y cosas así.

01:42:21:05-01:42:45:12
MARK WRATHALL VO
There is a sense that mindless conformism is dehumanizing and destroys what's great about us and unique about us. So, we value individuality as well. But you know there is a tension there, if everybody is an individual then you lose the benefits that come from shared adherence to rules and shared norms and values. So, there's always a tension going on there.

Existe la idea de que el conformismo ciego deshumaniza y destruye lo que nos hace únicos y especiales. Así también valoramos la individualidad. Pero sabes que ahí existe una tensión, si todo el mundo es un individuo entonces pierdes beneficios que se obtienen de la común obediencia a las reglas, las normas y los valores comunes. Así que siempre hay tensión.

01:42:47:10-01:43:01:19    
TAYLOR CARMAN VO
So, if you did something that was really totally radically new and had no continuity with the traditions of the culture your in, it would be unintelligible. And it wouldn't just be unintelligible to your friends. It would be unintelligible to you.

Así que si hicieses algo que fuera total y radicalmente nuevo y no tuviera continuidad con las tradiciones de la cultura en la que vives, sería incomprensible. Y no solo lo sería para tus amigos, sino también para ti.

01:43:02:00-01:43:12:10
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
If you throw off all your clothes and roll in the flowers at lunchtime when everybody else is eating their sauerkraut and wurst or something. That isn't... That is... No.

Si tiras toda tu ropa y te revuelcas en las flores a la hora de comer cuando todo el mundo se está comiendo su chucrut y su salchicha. Eso no es… es… no.

01:43:12:13-01:43:44:15
TAYLOR CARMAN VO
There's a certain romantic conception which is that you just burst out of all convetional constraints all norms and received opinions and you just become you own person,  we are thoroughly conditioned by the world we are in and that world is a world of customs, traditions, practices that we're just so immersed in we can never see our way out of it. So, the only way to do anything skillfully and with innovation and insight and sensitivity and authentically is to be appropriating traditions, practices, customs that are all around us in the world. That we've just absorbed.

Hay una cierta concepción romántica que consiste en alejarse de todas las restricciones, las normas y las opiniones y convertirse en ti mismo, y Heidegger no creía en eso en absoluto. Heidegger pensaba que estamos absolutamente condicionados por el mundo en el que vivimos y que ese mundo es un mundo de costumbres, tradiciones y prácticas en las que estamos inmersos y de las que no podemos liberarnos. Así que la única manera de hacer algo con habilidad, innovación, perspicacia, sensibilidad y autenticidad es apropiándose las tradiciones, prácticas y costumbres que nos rodean. Las que hemos asimilado.

01:43:44:17-01:44:10:14
IAIN THOMSON VO
When the South American teams about two years ago realized that they could gain some space over the Germans by pulling the ball back to right on to the sideline. They'd pull it back to the sideline and the Germans were afraid. The Germans really respect the rules and the boundaries. They wouldn't come in so it gave them a little room. Alright, so they used this superior skill that they had to really manipulate the lines; it gave them the space and they started beating the German teams again.

Cuando hace unos dos años los equipos sudamericanos se dieron cuenta de que podrían ganar un poco de terreno a los alemanes llevando la pelota a la línea de banda lo hicieron y los alemanes se desconcertaron. Los alemanes respetan las normas y los límites, no acudieron y así los sudamericanos obtuvieron un poco de espacio. Muy bien, utilizaron la estrategia y manipularon los límites, obtuvieron espacio y empezaron a ganar a los equipos alemanes de nuevo.
01:44:10:23-01:44:31:12
MARK WRATHALL VO
The example of an athlete I think is a good illustration of this. Athletes are rule bound. Rule governed. You can't play the game unless you are following the rules, but the great athletes see a way to express something about the game within the confines of the rules, but in a way that other people haven't thought to do or aren't able to do.

Creo que hablar de los atletas es un buen ejemplo en este caso. Los atletas se aferran a las reglas, se gobiernan por ellas. No puedes practicar un deporte si no sigues unas normas. Los grandes atletas ven una manera de expresar algo sobre el juego dentro de los confines de las reglas, pero de una manera en la que las personas no habían pensado o no son capaces de hacerlo.

01:44:31:15-01:44:40:15
TAYLOR CARMAN VO

A real innovator changes the way the game is played and the game takes on a new style and people start playing it differently, even though they are following the same rules.

Un verdadero innovador cambia cómo se juega un juego y éste adquiere un nuevo estilo y la gente comienza a jugar de manera diferente, aunque sigan las mismas reglas.

01:44:40:16-01:44:53:18
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
There is the famous example. The Fosbury flop. He jumps with his back to the thing he's jumping over. Everybody else sort of dived over and everybody thought it was crazy, but he won gold medals at the olympics.

Hay un ejemplo conocido: el Salto Fosbury. Él saltaba de espaldas al listón, y desde luego esa técnica era totalmente diferente. El resto del mundo saltaba de frente y pensaban que estaba loco, pero él consiguió medallas en los juegos olímpicos.

01:44:53:20-01:44:59:16
TAYLOR CARMAN VO
The same rules are governing the game, but now the game has a whole new look. There's a way of doing things that is altogether new.

El juego sigue teniendo las mismas reglas, pero ahora ha conseguido un nuevo aspecto. Hay un modo de hacer las cosas que sea totalmente nuevo.


X. WORLDS WORLDING

X. CREACIÓN DE LOS MUNDOS
01:45:06:05-01:45:47:06
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
Heidegger had to work out a new notion of the world because it was clear that it's not the ideas in another realm that Plato was thinking about and it's not the sum total of objects which is what Descartes was thinking about. Well then what is it? What is it to be open to the world the way we are? What is it we are open to when we are open to the world? What is it to have a world at all? There are lots of worlds: the world of jazz, the world of carpentry, the world of cooking, the sports world and there is our world, ours meaning the academic world.

Así que Heidegger tuvo que trabajar en un nuevo concepto de mundo porque estaba claro que no se trataba de ideas de otro campo en las que pensaba Platón y tampoco la suma total de los objetos que era en lo que Descartes pensaba. Bueno y entonces, ¿qué es? ¿Qué es estar abierto al mundo de la manera en que lo estamos? ¿A qué estamos abiertos cuando estamos abiertos al mundo? ¿Qué es tener un mundo? Hay muchos mundos, el mundo del jazz, de la carpintería, el mundo culinario, el deportivo y está nuestro mundo, que significa el mundo académico.

01:45:47:09-01:46:02:01
MARK WRATHALL VO
Heidegger thought that our highest dignity as human beings--what really set us apart from everything else in the universe--was our capacity to "disclose" whole new worlds, to open up whole new possibilities. 

01:46:26:07-01:47:03:09
Heidegger coined this idea of disclosure, to capture something that we are not used to thinking about, and that is the way that things only show themselves when all the conditions of skill and all the relationships between them are possible and then the experience there is of something opening up a space of possibilities, opening up a way of inhabiting the world opening up. And its not like it was there all along, its not like the world of jazz music was somewhere there in the middle ages say or in the Greek world just waiting to be discovered. It was something that had to have a space provided for it.

01:47:26:23-01:47:40:02
These worlds, these coherent whole organized ways of being humans in activities at objects in the world, all of that requires something to open up.

Heidegger pensaba que nuestra mayor dignidad como seres humanos, lo que realmente nos separaba de todo lo demás en el universo, era nuestra capacidad para “revelar” nuevos mundos, para crear nuevas posibilidades.

Heidegger acuñó la idea de revelación, captar algo en que no estamos acostumbrados a pensar, y esa es la manera en la que las cosas se muestran cuando todas las condiciones de habilidad y todas las relaciones entre ellas son posibles y entonces la experiencia es la de algo que abre el abanico de posibilidades y una manera de vivir en el mundo abriéndose. Y no es que estuviera allí todo el tiempo, no es que el mundo del jazz estuviera presente en la edad media o en el mundo griego esperando a ser descubierto. Era algo que necesitaba que se le otorgara un espacio.

Estos mundos, todas estas formas coherentes de ser humanos en actividades y propósitos en el mundo, todo eso requiere que algo se abra.
01:48:27:14-01:48:28:03
MANUEL MOLINA VO
Where am I?

¿Dónde estoy yo?

XI. THE HISTORY OF BEING

XI. LA HISTORIA DEL SER

01:48:39:01-01:48:56:09
MARK WRATHALL VO
Heidegger, especially in the last few decades of his life, became obsessed with what he called the 'hidden history of the West'. It wasn't the sort of history historians usually talk about, things happening, battles been fought. Instead it was the history of changes in worlds.

Heidegger, especialmente en las últimas décadas de su vida, se obsesionó con lo que él llamaba “la historia oculta de Occidente”. No era el tipo de historia sobre la que hablaban los historiadores, las cosas que pasaban, las batallas que se libraban. Se trataba de la historia de los cambios en los mundos.

01:49:00:00-01:49:14:01
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
Heidegger saw that there were epochs in what he called the 'history of being' in which there were whole different styles of coping and a whole different style of everything.

Heidegger vio que había épocas en lo que él llamaba la “historia del ser” en las que había estilos muy diferentes de afrontar las cosas y estilos muy diferentes de todo.

01:49:14:07-01:49:35:04
IAIN THOMSON VO
Everything is. We don't usually think about what isness means but in his view the history of being is a series of three to five fundamentally different ways of conceiving isness. And its not like people walk around thinking isness is this or its that, its just they are socialized into it. They grow up learning to deal with things through practices in different ways.

Todo es. Normalmente no pensamos en lo que ser significa pero en este caso la historia del ser es una serie de tres a cinco maneras diferentes de concebir el ser. Y no es que las personas se paseen pensando que ser es esto o lo otro, sino que lo asimilan. Crecen aprendiendo a afrontar las cosas mediante diferentes comportamientos.

01:49:36:02-01:49:44:20
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
There was this early Greek epoch and that was an epoch in which the name for being was 'physis' and it means nature.
En una antigua época griega el término para ser era “physis”, que significa naturaleza.

01:49:45:11-01:49:57:14
TAYLOR CARMAN VO
They had a sense that to be was to sort of emerge, to open up or blossom or dawn into the light, into the opening and then to sort of whither away and to fade away.
Ellos tenían la impresión de que ser era como una especie de surgir, abrirse o florecer o amanecer en la luz, en la apertura y luego irse lejos y desvanecerse.


01:49:57:16-01:50:09:20
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
Things were whooshing up, lingering a while and then going away, important things. Emotions well up and linger and go away, moods well up and go away, great athletic performances do that.

Las cosas fluían, persistían un tiempo y entonces se desvanecían, cosas importantes. Las emociones surgían, persistían y se desvanecían, las sensaciones surgían, persistían y se desvanecían, las grandes actuaciones deportivas lo permiten.

01:50:10:01-01:50:17:09

TAYLOR CARMAN VO
And that's exactly what you lose a sense of if you think that to be is just to be an object of knowledge.
Y eso es exactamente lo que pierdes si piensas que para ser solo debes ser un objeto de conocimiento.

01:50:18:09-01:51:10:12

HUBERT DREYFUS VO
Then what happened after that, the current understanding of being in Greek was 'poeisis' and poeisis means bringing things out. But this is like growing crops, this is nurturing. It was what craftsmen do, so like Hiroshi they were helping the grain in the wood come out and show itself at its best and of course cooks do the same thing. They bring out what is best in the food and they bring out what's best in the people eating the food and they bring them all together. Something of poeisis is still left from that epoch and its kind of marginal for us now. The big banquets were the central thing for the Homeric Greeks and the craftsman were the central thing for the poeisis epoch but we still have a sense of that just as we have still have a sense of things whooshing up, moods particularily.
Entonces lo que pasó despues de eso, la comprensión actual de ser en Griego era "poeisis" y poeisis significaba llevar las cosas afuera. Pero esto es como cosechar, esto es cultivar. Era lo que los artesanos hacen, como Hiroshi ellos estaban ayudando al cereal a salir de la madera y mostrarse en su plenitud y por supuesto la cocina hace lo mismo. Ellos sacan lo mejor de la comida y sacan lo mejor de la gente comiendo y lo unen todo. Algo de poeisis queda todavía de esa época.

01:51:11:22-01:51:47:22
The next one is very interestingly different from poeisis, instead of bringing out what is in things, the Roman understanding of being was to impose form on matter and instead of bringing things out you hammered it into shape, you imposed an order on everything. Their favorite thing, I would imagine, would be bricks. You just get this mud, you can't bring out the form in the mud by poeisis, you just make the mud into bricks, you make the bricks into roads, you make the roads in bridges and you administer the whole Roman empire. You kept down the crowd as Virgil says the great person does. 
Lo siguiente es muy diferente de poeisis, en vez de sacar lo que hay en las cosas, el entendimiento romano del ser era imponer la forma en la materia y en vez de traer cosas hacia fuera martilleaste a tu manera, impusiste orden en todo. Su objeto preferido, me imagino, serían los ladrillos. Solo consigues el barro, no puedes moldear el barro por poeisis, sólamente conviertes el barro en ladrillos, los ladrillos en caminos, los caminos en puentes y administras el Imperio Romano entero. Contuviste a la gente como Virgilio dice que lo hace una gran persona.

01:51:48:00-01:52:31:19
Then that sets up the Christian one, and finally there is only one big producer, God. He imposes all the forms on everything, everything has its proper place in a hierarchy and everybody knows what to do because they got that place. The king does what kings do and the bishops to what bishops do and nobody ever has to worry about whether they should be a soldier or a peasant or a bishop because that's all settled for them in their given tradition and their family and their location in the scheme of things. What are all things then? Well we have a word for it, we just don't notice it, they are all creatures. Creatures created by this supreme being.
Luego eso establece el Cristiano; y finalmtente hay solo un gran productor, Dios. Él impone todas las formas a todo, todo tiene un lugar apropiado en una jerarquía y cada uno sabe que hacer porque ellos obtuvieron ese lugar. El rey hace lo que hacen los reyes y los obispos lo que hacen los obispos y nadie tiene que preocuparse nunca sobre si ellos deberían ser un soldado o un campesino o un obispo porque todo está ordenado para ellos según su tradición, y sus familias y su posición en el esquema de las cosas. ¿Qué son todas las cosas entonces? Bueno, tenemos una palabra para ello, solo que no nos damos cuenta, todas ellas son criaturas. Criaturas creadas por el ser supremo.

01:52:32:02-01:53:03:05

MARK WRATHALL VO
And they thought all the things were ordered by how close they were approached to God's nature. They had a notion in the Christian world of what they called 'noble metals'--things like gold and silver. These were noble because the Christians thought they were more like God: they were incorruptible; they would not rust. And so when you looked at gold, you thought that gold is much closer to God than just an ordinary rock. And it was all organized around God as the highest and greatest thing in the universe.
Ellos pensaban que todo fue ordenado según su acercamiento a la naturaleza de Dios. Ellos tenían una nocion en el mundo Cristiano de los que ellos llamaron "metales nobles", como el oro y la plata. Eran nobles porque los Cristianos pensaron que se parecían a Dios: eran incorruptibles; no se oxidarían. Entonces cuando miraban el oro, pensaban que el oro estaba más cerca de Dios que una roca ordinaria. Todo estuvo organizado alrededor de Dios como lo mejor y más grandioso del universo.


01:53:04:03-01:53:13:03
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
It's a very closed world. If, as Heidegger thinks, human being are there to open worlds this is about as far from where we should be as we can get.
Es un mundo muy cerrado. Si, como Heidegger piensa, los seres humanos están allí para abrir mundos estamos muy alejados de la meta que deberíamos alcanzar.

01:53:13:11-01:53:20:14 

MARK WRATHALL VO
They way Heidegger understood it, the modern age lasted from roughly the 16th century to the 20th century.
Según Heidegger, la edad moderna duró aproximadamente desde el siglo XVI hasta el siglo XX.

01:53:21:14-01:53:27:17 

HUBERT DREYFUS VO
The modern subject has taken the place of God, it's us who give everything meaning.
El sujeto moderno ha ocupado el lugar de Dios, somos nosotros quienes le damos significado a todo.

01:53:28:05-01:53:58:09 
MARK WRATHALL VO
What humans in the modern age were all about was dominance, dominating the world, subjecting it to their will and so if you think about the great heroes of the last several hundred years, they were explorers and conquerers bravely encountering new situations. Scientists who cracked the code and figured out how to manipulate things and use things or cowboys who has this sort of deep inner will and they could go out and break down any obstacles in the path to achieving what they desired.
Lo que la gente en la edad moderna quería era la dominación, dominar el mundo, someterlo a su voluntad y si piensas en los grandes héroes de los últimos cientos de años, se trata de exploradores y conquistadores que con valentía encontraron nuevas situaciones. Los científicos que descifraron el código y entendieron cómo manipular cosas y usarlas o los vaqueros que tienen esa voluntad intrínseca y podrían superar cualquier obstaculo que encontraran para conseguir lo que deseaban.

01:53:58:13-01:54:04:02 
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
Now we are in something entirely new, what he calls the technological understanding of being.
Ahora nosotros nos encontramos en una etapa completamente nueva, lo que él llama el entendimiento tecnológico del ser

XII. THE TECHNOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF BEING
XII. EL ENTENDIMIENTO TECNOLÓGICO DEL SER

01:54:05:14-01:54:15:15  

MARK WRATHALL VO
Heidegger wants to use the word technology to talk about our uniquely contemporary way of experiencing the world.
Heidegger quiere utilizar la palabra tecnología para hablar sobre nuestro único modo contemporáneo de experimentar el mundo.

01:54:15:16-01:54:37:15  

HUBERT DREYFUS VO
Everything is interconnected, everything is exchangeable and all meaningful distinctions have been gotten rid of except this one empty distinction, to be efficient and optimized. And you see it all over the place, we're so used to it that we don't even notice it, that's what great philosophers are supposed to do is help us see what's going on in our understanding of being.
Todo está interconectado, todo es intercambiable y todas las distinciones significativas han sido desechadas excepto una única distincion vacia, ser eficientes y optimizados. Se ve por todas partes, estamos tan acostumbrados que ni siquiera nos damos cuenta, lo que se supone que los grandes filósofos deben hacer es ayudarnos a ver qué está pasando en nuestro entendimiento del ser

01:54:38:11-01:54:48:18
MARK WRATHALL VO
Efficiency demands a kind of standardization, you have a few ways that you become very very good at and then you repeat them over and over again.
La eficiencia exige una especie de estandarización, existen algunos métodos que son muy buenos y que repetimos una y otra vez. 

01:54:49:21-01:55:12:16    
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
You have these sort of frightening sub divisions, that you see as you drive in from the airport usually, where all the houses on the side of the hill are the same shape, the same color. They just discovered that's the most efficient way to build a house and they just build them all that way and everybody manages to live that way and so everything is just totally standardized.

01:55:21:15-01:55:24:22  
Everything is just resources to be optimized.
Tenemos una especie de espantosas subdivisiones, que vemos cuando aterrizamos en un aeropuerto, donde todas las casas al lado de la colina tienen la misma forma y el mismo color. Se acaba de descubrir cuál es la manera más eficiente de construir una casa y las construyen todas de la misma manera. Todo son recursos que optimizar.

01:55:26:03-01:55:47:09
MARK WRATHALL VO
The most efficient way to feed people is to have a few ways of doing it and then you impose it everywhere and the most efficient way to make a broad range of goods available to everybody is to do it on a big scale like Walmart does and make everybody indistinguishable and have everything organized and efficiently laid out.
El modo más eficiente de alimentar a la gente es tener algunas maneras de hacerlo y luego las imponemos y la manera más eficiente de producir una amplia gama de bienes disponibles para todo el mundo es hacerlo a gran escala como Walmart y hacer a todo el mundo indistinguible y tener todo organizado y eficientemente presentado.


01:55:49:09-01:56:36:04
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
Its just to get the world as organized as possible and to bring more and more into this total organization, its really systems thinking. Everything is a system, the airplane is no longer an object when its sitting on runway, its a cog in the transportation system. And you might think that well at least you are gonna be there to either take the plane or not take the plane but no, the tourist industry has been set up for it to make you a filler of this potentiality for a running around that is on the runway. And why would be people go just to get a rest and get more energetic so that they can plunge back into the rat race in which they are all replaceable, they're just doing some job efficiently and if somebody comes along and does it more efficiently they can be replaced.
Se trata solo de conseguir un mundo lo más organizado posible y aportar cada vez más a esta organización total, un pensamiento de sistemas. Todo es un sistema, Heidegger dice que un avión ya no es un objeto cuando está en la pista, es una pieza del sistema de transporte . Podrías pensar que al menos vas a estar ahí para subir o no al avión, pero no, la industria turística se ha creado para hacer que formes parte de ella y que recorras la pista para despegar. Y por qué la gente se tomaría un descanso para recuperar energías y lanzarse de nuevo a una carrera en la que son sustituibles, solo están haciendo su trabajo de manera eficiente y si alguien va y lo hace mejor que ellos pueden ser reemplazados.

01:56:36:05-01:57:21:00
MARK WRATHALL VO
One of the dangers of technology is it relieves of us the burden of having to develop skills. Technology is always sold as a labor saving device, when you buy the latest technology for cooking the promise is you can cook as good as a master without any of the skills the master has, and that goes for everything, with music as well. All of us now today can enjoy music of a quality unimaginable to most people in the history of the world in the comfort of our homes with very little cost and very little effort. That's a great promise, who would give up on that and that pleasure of hearing music in that way but the danger is that we give into the seductions of technology to the degree that we lose all of these skills.
Uno de los peligros de la tecnología es que nos libera de la molestia de tener que desarrollar nuetras habilidades. La tecnología siempre se vende como un dispositivo que te ayuda con el trabajo, cuando compras lo último en tecnología para cocinar te prometen que podrás cocinar como un maestro sin ninguna de sus habilidades, y eso se aplica a todo, también a la música. Hoy en día podemos disfrutar de la música con una calidad inimaginable antiguamente en la comodidad de nuestros hogares y de una manera fácil y económica. Promete mucho, nadie rechazaría el placer de escuchar música de esa manera. Pero el peligro estriba en que nos dejamos seducir por la tecnología de tal manera que perdemos todas esas habilidades.

01:57:21:03-01:57:28:05 
IAIN THOMSON VO
The internet is actually a much better example, because what the internet is doing is basically transforming all reality and information.
Internet es en realidad un mejor ejemplo, porque lo que Intermet está haciendo es básicamente transformar toda la realidad y la información.

01:57:28:09-01:58:27:03 
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
Everything on the internet is equal, you can have the most important information right next door to the most trivial. You can find out what your friends had for breakfast and you can find out also that there were a hundred people killed in Iraq that day. With Google you can find anything, you can go in Wikipedia and get facts about anything and that in a certain way is terrific if you just use it for something relevant but if you think thats just the best thing in the world, just to have more and more information, more and more transformable stuff, more and more applications for your iphone that make it able to do more and more things and that thats just what it is all about. Everything gets leveled, there's no meaningful differences any more between what's important and what's not important, what's trivial and what's crucial, what's relevant and irrelevant, it's all reduced to just more information. 
Todo en Internet es equivalente, puedes encontrar la información más importante al lado de lo más trivial. Puedes averiguar lo que tus amigos han desayunado y puedes averiguar también que cien personas han sido asesinadas en Irak. Con Google puedes encontrar cualquier cosa, puedes visitar la Wikipedia y encontrar datos sobre cualquier cosa y eso en cierto modo es estupendo si solo lo usas para algo puntual, pero si piensas que lo mejor es tener cada vez más información, más aplicaciones en tu iPhone para que cada vez pueda hacer más cosas al final todo se limita a eso. Todo está nivelado, no hay ninguna diferencia significativa entre lo que es importante y lo que no lo es, lo que es trivial y lo que es crucial, lo que es relevante e irrelevante, todo se reduce solamente a más información.

01:58:27:10-01:59:29:17 
CHARLES TAYLOR VO
If you wanna really be efficient you don't want this kind of interference, you know "Hey, this is Sunday! or this is Christmas, you have to stop that!" Or "This is the middle of the night what are you doing?" No, twenty four seven is one of the great, great achievements of our civilization. Somethings go on all the time, are available all the time an its very handy. You know, three o'clock in the morning I can rush to my computer and I can google and no on is gonna tell me this page is not available because you are supposed to be sleeping! No they are gonna give to you, so its an absolutely great benefit for myself but you can see what this is doing. What is it doing is making us look at time as something that is infinitely usable and accessible, doesn't matter where it is and I can access. As against being, as it were, forced back in to understanding that there are times that are just different, that are a different quality that are not appropriate to use in this way.

01:59:34:06-02:00:06:12  
MARK WRATHALL VO
And its true that it changes us so we have to become the kind of people who are satisfied with the sort of commodities that are delivered to us. You can imagine people who really are connoisseurs of jazz music, who really understand that one of the great things about jazz music is the way musicians are responding to the performance hall and the audience and the particular musicians that are there and the weather and whatever accidents are happening, the jazz musicians are incorporating it into their performance.
Y es cierto que esto nos cambia para que lleguemos a ser el tipo de personas que se sienten satisfechas con las comodidades que nos ofrecen. Así que te puedes imaginar la gente que realmente conoce el jazz, que verdaderamente entiende que una de las cosas más importantes del jazz es la manera en que los músicos responden a la atmósfera de la sala, al público y a los músicos que están allí así como al clima y a cualquier cosa que ocurra. Los músicos de jazz incorporan todo eso en su actuación.

02:00:12:03-02:00:16:15  
TAYLOR AUSTIN VO
Responding to the other musicians is one of the most important things.
Responder a otros músicos es una de las cosas más importantes.
02:00:18:00-02:00:45:00  

RYAN CROSS VO
In playing together you'll hear that in the music where the piano plays something, the bass will react and drums are playing and then trumpet will jump in. You're interacting with everything, everything is a part of what you are trying to get to. Anything can change what's happening, the cell phone goes off and then all of a sudden its like 'oh' Cat might make fun of it on the piano or even on the trumpet or whatever it is and it all becomes a part of the performance.
Al tocar juntos te darás cuenta de que en música, cuando el piano toca algo, el bajo reaccionará y la batería tocará y luego la trompeta se unirá. Interactúas con todo, todo es una parte de lo que estás intentando obtener. Cualquier cosa puede cambiar lo que ocurre, el teléfono móvil se apaga y de repente piensas que Cat podría divertirse con el piano o incluso con la trompeta o con cualquier cosa y todo forma parte de la actuación.

02:00:45:02 -02:01:04:05  
MARK WRATHALL VO
And if you, as a listener, are a skillful listener and have the bodily dispositions to pick up on that you'd never be satisfied by listening to recorded jazz performance on CD because thats not the performance that would be optimal for your bedroom or living room.
Y si tú, como oyente, eres hábil y tienes las disposiciones corporales para captarlo nunca estarás satisfecho escuchando una actuación de jazz en CD porque esa no es la actuación óptima para tu habitación o sala de estar.

02:01:05:10-02:01:18:13  
But technology makes us also the sort of flexible people who are satisfied with a sort of cheap imitation of all the goods that deeply skillful practices deliver.
Pero la tecnología nos hace también una especie de personas flexibles que están satisfechas con un tipo de imitación barata de todos los bienes que ofrecen las prácticas realmente profesionales.

02:01:24:04-02:01:35:22
MANUEL'S FRIEND VO
We are artists of the bars, we are artists who have our own style. And we are artists of feeling and we are artists who create our own transcendence. 
Somos artistas de bar, somos artistas que tenemos nuestro propio estilo. Y somos artistas de sentimiento y somos artistas que creamos nuestra propia trascendencia.

02:01:36:03-02:01:54:06
MARK WRATHALL VO
I've hear that flamenco artists have a deep aversion to even being recorded for this very reason. They have just an intuitive sense that recording them and making their performance reproducible in all sorts of foreign contexts is distorting what flamenco is really all about.
OHe oído que los artistas flamencos sienten una aversión profunda a ser siquiera grabados por esa razón. Ellos solo sienten que grabarles y permitir que su actuación se reproduzca en todo tipo de contextos extranjeros distorsiona el flamenco.

02:01:55:04-02:02:39:10
MANUEL MOLINA VO
Yesterday, you asked something "What is the flamenco rhythm?" And I said that the compas, or rhythm was a measurement but I was wrong about that. Instead, the rhythm is a way of walking, a way of speaking, a way of kissing, a way of embracing. That is the rhythm...
Ayer, preguntaste qué era el ritmo del flamenco, y yo dije que el compás o ritmo eran una medida, pero estaba equivocado. El ritmo es una manera de caminar, una manera de hablar, una manera de besar, una manera de abrazar. Eso es el ritmo...

02:02:41:08-02:02:51:15
MARK WRATHALL VO
Technology is something to be grateful for but we have to learn how to not be seduced by technology, to keep this drive alive, to keep this desire alive to be humans.
La tecnología es algo que hay que agradecer pero tienes que aprender a no dejarte seducir por la tecnología, a mantener ese impulso vivo, a mantener vivo el deseo de ser humanos.

02:02:52:10-02:03:03:13
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
In his last years Heidegger was trying to figure out how to resist the technological understanding of being and have a meaningful human life in spite of it. 
El problema es cómo respetar la tecnología, apreciarla, usarla para deshacerse de todas las cosas estúpidas que solíamos tener que hacer y sin embargo no permitir que nos deshagamos de lo que importa, lo que es nuestro, único, importante y significativo para nosotros.
02:03:06:07-02:03:40:05
CHARLES TAYLOR VO
We're speaking to a malise that a lot of people feel, but they may feel, well you use malaise but I've no right to because this is progress, this is civilization, this is modernity or this is...we've made this tremendous leap ahead from all those benighted peasants in  the middle ages so who am I to complain? This sense of being, this sense of being morally compelled not to protest, which a lot of people have along side the feeling of somethings wrong here but I can't believe the feeling because reason tells me on the contrary. We can explode that myth.
02:03:40:07-02:04:02:10
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
The problem is how to respect technology, appreciate technology, use it to get rid of all the dumb stuff that we used to have to do and yet not let it get rid of what matters, and what is local, and what is unique, and what is significant and meaningful for us.

02:04:05:20-02:05:12:00
IAIN THOMSON VO
If I think nature around me is nothing but meaningless stuff waiting to be optimized then why shouldn't I put a nice big hotel here, make a lot of money and all the people can see the ocean. The idea that there is something there independently of me is something you have to cultivate and develop a sensitivity to. And I think that's what a poet does, the poet is sort of the paradigmatic instance of the person who has learned a receptivity to things independent of us. We can all learn from that, you don't have to be a poet or an artist, you can be a cook or a carpenter or a soccer player. Life is made most meaningful when you respond to meanings that are independent of you. Right? I mean is a point that goes back to Kierkegaard, Kierkegaard said that if you think all meaning comes from you then you can just take it back, you are a king without a castle, you are a sovereign of a land of nothing. There has to be something in the world that pushes back, that has some force over you or else you'll never experience anything as really mattering to you.
Si pienso que la naturaleza que me rodea no es más que algo insignificante esperando a ser optimizado entonces ¿no debería yo poner un gran hotel aquí desde donde se puede ver el mar y ganar mucho dinero? La idea de que hay algo allí independientemente de mí es algo que tienes que cultivar y para lo que debes desarrollar una sensibilidad. Pienso que eso es lo que hace un poeta, por eso Heidegger habla de la poesía ya que el poeta es el ejemplo paradigmático de la persona que ha adquirido una receptividad de las cosas independientes a nosotros. Heidegger cree que podemos aprender de eso, no tienes que ser un poeta o un artista, puedes ser un cocinero o un carpintero o un jugador de fútbol. La vida se vuelve más significativa cuando reaccionas a significados que son independientes a ti. ¿Verdad? Pienso que es un hecho que vuelve a Kierkegaard, Kierkegaard dijo que si piensas que todo el significado viene de ti entonces puedes recuperarlo, eres un rey sin un castillo, soberano de una tierra de nadie. Tiene que haber algo en el mundo que haga retroceder, que tenga alguna fuerza sobre ti o si no nunca experimentarás nada que sea importante para ti.

02:05:12:23-02:05:16:16
TAO RUSPOLI VO
Why are guitars that aren't hand made so bad?
¿Por qué las guitarras que no están hechas a mano están malas?

02:05:17:00-02:06:04:21
MANUEL MOLINA VO
Because a machine makes it and a machine doesn't FEEL. The machine doesn't UNDESTAND. Guitars are always alive. The wood LIVES. Let's not even talk about a guitar. Let's talk about a commode, or a dresser or a TABLE. When a TABLE is made by HAND the FOOD off it TASTES DIFFERENT. Or take a plate that's is machine made and compare to eating off a plate made of clay that comes from earth and was touched by human hands. Why? Because there is dedication. The machine is distinct from the human in that precisely by virtue of the fact that a man is not a machine.
Porque una máquina hace lo que tiene que hacer y no siente. La máquina no entiende. Las guitarras están siempre vivas. La madera vive. Ni siquiera hablemos de una guitarra. Hablemos sobre una cómoda, un vestidor o una mesa. Cuando una mesa está hecha a mano la comida tiene un sabor diferente. O compara un plato hecho por una máquina con un uno hecho de arcilla obtenida de la tierra y que fue moldeada por manos humanas. ¿Por qué? Porque hay dedicación. La máquina es distinta a los humanos en eso precisamente, en virtud del hecho de que un hombre no es una máquina.

02:06:04:23-02:06:24:19
MARK WRATHALL VO
The standardization that's required for efficiency rules out those sorts of practices and what characterizes all of them is that they are not terribly efficient, they require a real sensitivity and receptivity to what the particular world requires.
La estandarización que se exige para la eficiencia excluye esos tipos de prácticas y lo que los caracteriza es que ellos no son absollutamente eficientes, requieren una sensibilidad y receptividad reales para lo que el mundo particular exige.

02:06:27:10-02:06:47:00
ANNE SAKAGUCHI VO
Japanese carpentery doesn't have the focus on efficiency, it's the quality thats really important and the feeling and so some projects , for instance, Hiroshi did this project that took seven years, after he selected the wood it took two years for the wood to dry and then it took 18 months for him to cut everything out in his shop. You have to be patient if you want a Japanese structure.
El carpintero Japonés no se centra en la eficiencia como la carpintería Americana, la calidad y el sentimiento son lo importante en algunos proyectos. Hiroshi realizó un proyecto que duró siete años; después de seleccionar la madera tardó dos años en secarse y después tardó 18 meses en tallarla toda en su taller. Tienes que ser paciente si quieres obtener una estructura japonesa.

02:06:47:08-02:07:42:20

IAIN THOMSON VO
The way in which Michelangelo saw David in the Marble, there was like the inchoate possibility of David and he brought it out. For me thats what we all have to do in our lives in whatever way, you know? And its a little mysterious to talk about it like that but I think anybody who gets really good at things has some sense for it means to bring out what's there that nobody has seen. For me it was sports when I was younger now it is teaching right? So, and that means interpreting texts, so I get incredible joy out of showing that a text that's been read for 2000 years, there's things there that nobody has even seen, that are really there and that once we articulate them together we can all see that they're really there. That great texts are inexhaustible in the same way that reality itself is inexhaustible I think that's the lesson that there is this kind of mysterious source that continues to offer humanity meaning, you can all it God if you're religious, religious in the literal sense of religia, everything is interconnected.

El modo en que Miguel Ángel vio a David en el mármol, existía la posibilidad incipiente de David y él la obtuvo. Para mí eso es lo que todos tenemos que hacer en nuestras vidas cueste lo que cueste, ¿sabes? Es un poco misterioso hablar de ello así pero creo que cualquiera que sea muy bueno en algunas cosas tiene facilidad para ello, para sacar lo que hay ahí y que nadie ha visto. Para mí eran los deportes cuando era joven y ahora es enseñar. Eso significa interpretar textos, así que encuentro una gran satisfacción en enseñar que en un texto que se ha leído durante dos mil años hay cosas que nadie ha visto nunca, que están realmente ahí y que una vez las unimos podemos verlo. Esos grandes textos son inagotables del mismo modo que la realidad misma es inagotable. Pienso que esa es la lección que existe es este tipo de fuente misteriosa que continúa ofreciendo significado a la humanidad, puedes llamarlo Dios si eres religioso pero Heidegger no lo era en ese sentido, él es religioso en el sentido literal de religia, todo está interconectado pero no pienso que fuera religioso en el significado literal de Dios. Para él Dios es algo como lo que te importa independientemente a ti.

XIII.FOCAL PRACTICES
XIII. Prácticas focales


02:07:48:06-02:08:08:18
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
A focal practice reverses all the bad things we talked about. It draws a group of people together around some specific thing that matters, that requires a kind of skill and mastery in order for it to be done and which brings the people out in their own uniqueness at their best.
Heidegger propone lo que podemos llamar prácticas focales. Una práctica focal invierte todas las cosas malas sobre las que hemos hablamos. Reúne a un grupo de personas alrededor de algo importante y específico que requiere un tipo de habilidad y dominio para realizarse y que saca de la gente lo mejor de ellos y lo que les hace únicos.

02:08:09:04-02:08:43:10
ALBERT BORGMANN VO
I tell my students you can't buy the meaning of life, you can't borrow it, and you can't manufacture it you can only discover it. And then I invite them to search their experiences and their hopes and aspirations for occasions where they are in a position to affirm four propositions. The first is there is no place I'd rather be, the second is there is no one I'd rather be with, the third is there is nothing I'd rather be doing and the fourth is this I will remember well.

02:08:44:01-02:09:08:14
LINDSEY BENNER VO
There are moments when I'm juggling and they are my favorite moments when I just get lost in what I am doing. And what happens to me on stage, I get to share that moment with my audience. I will juggle in a crowded bar and I know it's working when people go silent and everyone stops and everyone looks because they can't help it. And those are magic, those are magic moments and that's why I do it.
Mis momentos favoritos son cuando hago malabarismos, cuando me pierdo en lo que estoy haciendo. Y lo que me pasa en el escenario consigo compartirlo con el público. Hago malabares en un bar lleno de gente y sé que funciona cuando la gente para y se calla, y me miran porque no pueden evitarlo. Esos son momentos mágicos y por eso lo hago.

02:09:09:03-02:09:36:05

RYAN CROSS VO
With Jazz, you know, you are able to interact with the stars of jazz. Somebody like Winton Marcellus or Branford or Ray Brown, which was my teacher, you can just go up to them and say 'Hey!' Its a community and that community is what really drew me to jazz music. There's those times and you'll get too inside and those jazz masters will be sitting in the audience, those jazz legends will come out and be like "Hey man, connect".
Con el jazz eres capaz de interactuar con las estrellas del jazz. Alguien como Winton Marcellus o Branford o Ray Brown, que fue mi profesor, puedes ir hasta ellos y decir hola. Es una comunidad y esa comunidad es lo que realmente me atrajo al jazz. Hay algunos momentos en los que te integras y esos maestros del jazz estarán sentados en el público, esas leyendas del jazz se acercarán y dirán “Venga, conéctate!”.


02:09:36:23-02:09:43:23
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
You have to see and partly in watching this movie you are seeing how people can resist it.
Tienes que ver y en parte viendo esta película te das cuenta de cómo la gente puede resistirse.

02:10:00:10-02:10:17:09

HIROSHI SAKAGUCHI VO
In the community, you have the saw mill, the store, carpenter and the owner. Now, just mostly Japan, the whole country is like "money!" Just sell! Sell! Doesn't matter any kind of wood.
En la comunidad, tienes el molino, la tienda, el carpintero y el dueño. Ahora, sobre todo en Japón, el país entero grita: “¡Dinero!”. “¡Limítate a vender!”. No tiene ninguna importancia el tipo de madera.

02:10:30:05-02:11:11:07
LEAH CHASE VO
If I would not be back here, how many African-American restaurants you'd see? None...And if I had not stayed here all the time I did, the community would have gone down to nothing, to nothing. You stay in a community and you build it and you make it work. I have to do what I have to do, I had to go to that park this morning and cook these 20 gallons of gumbo before I go and serve it out there and thats a fun thing about today. Look how many people you made happy, just with a little cup of gumbo.
Si yo no estuviera aquí, ¿cuántos restaurantes afroamericanos verías? Ninguno... Y si no me hubiese quedado aquí la comunidad se habría convertido nada, nada. Te quedas en una comunidad y la construyes y la haces funcionar. Tengo que hacer lo que tengo que hacer, tengo que ir a ese parque esta mañana y cocinar 70 litros de sopa antes de servirlos y eso es algo divertido. Mire a cuánta gente has hecho feliz, con solo una pequeña taza de sopa.

02:11:13:04-02:11:51:23

CHARLES TAYLOR VO
Why is it that there is something so powerful about eating together?  We could all just take a quick hamburger and talk, yeah sure, we could. But there is something about eating together about experiencing together the really good taste of this meal, the experience of sipping the wine together. But also it goes deeper than that, humans need to eat to live, so we are in a collective act we are sustaining life our life together. 

02:11:55:07-02:11:58:21
TAO RUSPOLI VO
So you were saying good food gives rise to good flamenco?

¿Entonces usted dice que la buena comida da lugar al buen flamenco?

02:12:01:05-02:12:25:15
MANUEL MOLINA VO
Well actually good flamenco comes from NOT having food. But when there IS food, that's reason enough to have flamenco party! That's what we Gypsies have, we don't need a lot of money for a party. We can buy a melon, we can have a party.
Bueno, en realidad el buen flamenco viene de no tener comida. Pero cuando hay comida, ¡esa es una buena razón para organizar una fiesta flamenca! Eso es lo que tenemos los gitanos, no necesitamos mucho dinero para una fiesta. Podemos comprar un melón y podemos organizar una fiesta.



XIV. A Sense of the Sacred

02:12:31:02-02:13:48:04

ELIZABETH GILBERT VO
Centuries ago in the deserts of North Africa people used to gather for these moonlight dances of sacred dancing music that would go on for hours and hours until dawn, and they were always magnificent because the dancers were professionals and they were terrific. Every once in a while, very rarely, something would happen and one of these performers would actually become transcendent. And it was like time would stop and the dancer would sort of step through some kind of portal. And he wasn't doing anything different than he had ever done a thousand nights before, but everything would align and all of the sudden he would longer appear to be merely human. He would be lit from within and lit from below and all lit up on fire with divinity, and when this happened back then, people knew it for what it was. They called it by its name. They would put their hands together and they would start to chant Allah! Allah! Allah! God! God! God! That's God. You know. Curious historical footnote: when the Moors invaded Southern Spain, they took this custom with them and the pronunciation changed over the centuries from Allah! Allah! Allah! to Ole! Ole! Ole! Which you still hear in bullfights and in flamenco dances and in Spain when a performer has done something impossible and magic.


Poet!
When I die I want to die in Triana/ Near the little square so that I can hear the bells/ Like this anyone would want to die

¡Poeta!
Cuando muera quiero morir en Triana/Cerca de la placita para poder escuchar las campanas/Así cualquiera querría morir.

02:14:10:05-02:14:16:19
MARK WRATHALL VO
Skillful practices can focus, they draw things together and become focal practices.
Las prácticas expertas pueden enfocarse, reúnen cosas y se convierten en prácticas focales.

02:14:17:01-02:14:34:18
HUBERT DREYFUS VO
It will depend on the particular people there, it'll depend on the particular kind of music and the particular talent of the master musician and the particular instrument and the particular place and time. All that gets expressed in the music, itself.
Dependerá de la gente particular, dependerá de la clase de música concreta y del talento concreto del músico, del instrumento concreto y del lugar y momento concretos. Todo lo que se expresa en la música en sí misma.

02:14:35:10-02:15:06:01
MARK WRATHALL VO
And by focusing things I mean they focus different activities, they draw different activities together, different things you could be doing. So again think about making music, the practice of making music depended on all kinds of other human activities and human practices and you have skills for playing violin and you have skills for creating a hall where music could be played, and you have skills for composing music and so on and those all would come together on this moment when the music would be performed.
Al decir enfocar cosas me refiero a que enfocan diferentes actividades, reúnen diferentes actividades, cosas diferentes que podrías estar haciendo. Piensa de nuevo sobre hacer música, la práctica de hacer música dependía de todas las otras clases de actividades y prácticas humanas y tienes habilidades para tocar el violín, para dirigir, para componer música y demás, y todas ellas se reúnen cuando la música se toca.

02:15:08:11-02:15:37:14
Focal practices would also gather people and they would bring people together to focus on this one event so the whole community, if they wanted to hear music, would come together and they would be drawn together and they would focus on this moment of great mastery, when someone was again exhibiting this amazing feature of human life that we can become skillful and disclosive and show the world in a way that most people aren't capable of doing.
Las prácticas focales también reunirían a la gente para centrarse en un único acontecimiento así que la comunidad entera, si quisiera escuchar música, se reuniría y se centraría en ese momento de gran maestría, cuando alguien estuviera de nuevo demostrando esta asombrosa faceta de la vida humana de que todos podemos convertirnos en expertos y mostrar el mundo de un modo en el que la mayoría de la gente no es capaz.

02:15:51:06-02:16:02:03
MANUEL MOLENA VO
Flamenco, for me, to give you an example that's easy to understand...

El flamenco, para mí, para darle un ejemplo que sea fácil de entender...

It's like praying...
Es como rezar...
... a way of giving thanks to life
...un modo de dar gracias a la vida

02:16:04:23-02:16:26:06
HIROKI SAKAGUCHI VO

Shaving flowing. It looks like a God like kami-sama made it.

God made it, a beautiful wood. God connects me, God connects the wood and God connects me. 

So I try to honor that, with the best possible technique.

02:16:29:16-02:16:38:11
MANUEL MOLENA VO
For me, God isn't in Rome or in the church...
Para mí, Dios no está en Roma o en la iglesia...

God is in the simple things
Dios está en las cosas simples 

... in the difficult simplicities
...en las simplicidades difíciles

02:16:46:09-02:17:07:07
LEAH CHASE VO
And this is the way I would like everybody to come to the table sometimes at their houses. Sit your people down to the table if they're going to eat just Ramen noodles. Sit 'em there. And let 'em eat it and enjoy it. And you enjoy talking to one another and enjoy life. You know that. 

02:17:08:06-02:18:11:08
HUBERT DREFUS VO
When we finally understand mastery and a responsiveness to the richness and the calling in the world, then we understand that the source of meaning in our lives isn't in us, that's the Cartesian tradition. And it isn't in some supreme being, but it's in our way of being in the world. Being in the world is a unifying phenomenon, when people are at their best and most absorbed in doing a skillful thing they lose themselves into their absorption and the distinction between the master and the world disappears. Seeing what masters can do and seeing we can do it too and everybody can in their way take responsibility and become involved and bring out whats best in themselves and in the world that we can re-experience what people call 'the sacred'.